Peri-implant soft tissue phenotype modification and its impact on peri-implant health: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.
Published on Jan 1, 2021in Journal of Periodontology3.742
· DOI :10.1002/JPER.19-0716
BACKGROUND The peri-implant soft tissue phenotype (PSP) encompasses the keratinized mucosa width (KMW), mucosal thickness (MT) and supracrestal tissue height (STH). Numerous PSP approaches to augment soft tissue volume around endosseous dental implants have been investigated. To what extent PSP modification is beneficial for peri-implant health has been subject of debate in the field of implant dentistry. AIM The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the evidence regarding the efficacy of soft tissue augmentation procedures aimed at modifying the PSP and their impact on peri-implant health. MATERIALS AND METHODS A comprehensive search was performed to identify clinical studies that involved soft tissue augmentation around dental implants and reported findings on KMW, MT and/or STH changes. The effect of the intervention on peri-implant health was also assessed. Selected articles were classified based on the general type of surgical approach to increase PSP, either bilaminar or an apically positioned flap (APF) technique. A network meta-analysis including only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on PSP outcomes was conducted to assess and compare different techniques. RESULTS A total of 52 articles were included in the qualitative analysis, and 23 RCTs were included as part of the network meta-analysis. Sixteen RCTs reported the outcomes of PSP modification therapy with bilaminar techniques, while 7 involved the use of APF. The analysis showed that bilaminar techniques in combination with soft tissue grafts (connective tissue graft [CTG], collagen matrix [CM] and [ADM]) resulted in a significant increase in MT compared to non-augmented sites. In particular, CTG and ADM were associated with higher MT gain as compared to CM and non-augmented sites. However, no significant differences in KMW were observed across different bilaminar techniques. PSP modification via a bilaminar approach utilizing either CTG or CM showed beneficial effects on marginal bone level stability. APF-based approaches in combination with free gingival graft (FGG), CTG, CM or ADM showed a significant KMW gain compared to non-augmented sites. However, compared to APF alone, only FGG exhibited a significantly higher KMW gain. APF with any evaluated soft tissue graft was associated with probing depth, soft tissue dehiscence and plaque index reduction compared to non-augmented sites. The evidence regarding the effect of PSP on peri-implant marginal bone loss or preservation is inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS Bilaminar approach involving CTG or ADM obtained the highest amount of MT gain, while APF in combination with FGG was the most effective technique for increasing KMW. KMW augmentation via APF was associated with a significant reduction in probing depth, soft tissue dehiscence and plaque index, regardless of the soft tissue grafting material employed, while bilaminar techniques with CTG or CM showed beneficial effects on marginal bone level stability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.