The lipid paradox in neuroprogressive disorders: Causes and consequences.

Published on Sep 1, 2021in Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews8.989
· DOI :10.1016/J.NEUBIOREV.2021.06.017
Abstract null null Chronic systemic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in an environment of low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and low total cholesterol and with the pathophysiology of neuroprogressive disorders. The causes and consequences of this lipid paradox are explored. Circulating activated neutrophils can release inflammatory molecules such as myeloperoxidase and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Since activated neutrophils are associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease and with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, it seems reasonable to hypothesise that the inflammatory molecules released by them may act as mediators of the link between systemic inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis in neuroprogressive disorders. This hypothesis is tested by considering the association at a molecular level of systemic inflammation with increased LDL oxidation; increased small dense LDL levels; increased lipoprotein (a) concentration; secretory phospholipase A2 activation; cytosolic phospholipase A2 activation; increased platelet activation; decreased apolipoprotein A1 levels and function; decreased paroxonase-1 activity; hyperhomocysteinaemia; and metabolic endotoxaemia. These molecular mechanisms suggest potential therapeutic targets.
#1Erica GianazzaH-Index: 13
#2Maura BrioschiH-Index: 23
Last. Cristina BanfiH-Index: 30
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SIGNIFICANCE Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ACVDs) continue to be a primary cause of mortality worldwide in adults aged 35-70 years, occurring more often in countries with lower economic development, and is an ever-growing global burden that has a considerable socio-economic impact on society. ACVDs encompass diverse pathologies such as coronary artery disease and heart failure among others. Recent Advances: It is known that oxidative stress plays a relevant role in ACVDs and some of i...
#1Collodel Giulia (UNISI: University of Siena)H-Index: 1
#2Mattioli Simona (University of Perugia)H-Index: 1
Last. Castellini Cesare (University of Perugia)H-Index: 1
view all 9 authors...
The aim of this research was to evaluate the inflammatory and/or oxidative damage related to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are responsible for negative effects on sperm physiology and metabolism. Thirty New Zealand White rabbit bucks were divided into 5 experimental groups (6 animals/group): Control, treated with 0.9% NaCl; AgNP, treated with a 5 mM AgNP solution; LPS, treated with 50 g/kg b.w. E. coli LPS; AgNPs + NSAID, treated with an anti-inflammatory drug at 0.2 mg/kg b.w. and 5 mM Ag...
#1Qingfei Li (Ocean University of China)H-Index: 4
#2Kun Cui (Ocean University of China)H-Index: 5
Last. Qinghui Ai (Ocean University of China)H-Index: 52
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) not only serve as essential nutrients but also function as modulators of the immune response in marine fish. However, their immunomodulatory mechanism is poorly understood given that the underlying regulation of the innate immune response in fish has not been fully elucidated. Hence, study of the innate immunity of fish could help elucidate the mechanism by which PUFAs affect the fish immune response. Here, we used combined transcriptome analysis and in vitro ...
#1Gerwyn Morris (Deakin University)H-Index: 32
#2Chiara C Bortolasci (Deakin University)H-Index: 15
Last. Michael Berk (Deakin University)H-Index: 136
view all 11 authors...
Abstract In this paper, a model is proposed of the pathophysiological processes of COVID-19 starting from the infection of human type II alveolar epithelial cells (pneumocytes) by SARS-CoV-2 and culminating in the development of ARDS. The innate immune response to infection of type II alveolar epithelial cells leads both to their death by apoptosis and pyroptosis and to alveolar macrophage activation. Activated macrophages secrete proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and tend to polarise int...
Lately, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have shown substantial importance in human and animal nutrition, especially those of the n-3 group. Development and optimal functioning of the immune system are directed affected by diet. These dietary fatty acids have an important impact on the health and immune competence of various species including human beings. They are essential for the modulation of immune responses in health and disease. Fatty acid composition of immune cells can be mod...
#1Xiang Zhou (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 3
#2Tao Long (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 4
Last. Jeffrey K. Yao (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 48
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Membrane phospholipid deficits have been well-documented in schizophrenia (SZ) patients. Free fatty acids (FFAs) partially come from the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids and serve as the circulating pool of body fatty acids. These FFAs are involved in many important biochemical reactions such as membrane regeneration, oxidation and prostaglandin production which may have important implications in SZ pathology. Thus, we compared plasma FFA levels and profiles among healthy controls (HC), affe...
#1Mei-Chi Hsu (ISU: I-Shou University)H-Index: 1
#2Yung-Sheng Huang (ISU: I-Shou University)H-Index: 1
Last. Wen-Chen Ouyang (KMU: Kaohsiung Medical University)H-Index: 1
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BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a serious long-term psychotic disorder marked by positive and negative symptoms, severe behavioral problems and cognitive function deficits. The cause of this disorder is not completely clear, but is suggested to be multifactorial, involving both inherited and environmental factors. Since human brain regulates all behaviour, studies have focused on identifying changes in neurobiology and biochemistry of brain in schizophrenia. Brain is the most lipid rich organ (appro...
#1Alessandro Leuti (Sapienza University of Rome)H-Index: 12
#2Domenico FazioH-Index: 5
Last. Mauro Maccarrone (Sapienza University of Rome)H-Index: 92
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Abstract Endogenous bioactive lipids are part of a complex network that modulates a plethora of cellular and molecular processes involved in health and disease, of which inflammation represents one of the most prominent examples. Inflammation serves as a well-conserved defence mechanism, triggered in the event of chemical, mechanical or microbial damage, that is meant to eradicate the source of damage and restore tissue function. However, excessive inflammatory signals, or impairment of pro-reso...
#1Sotirios Tsimikas (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 98
#2Philip L.S.M. Gordts (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 22
Last. Joseph L. Witztum (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 159
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AIMS: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is elevated in 20-30% of people. This study aimed to assess the effect of statins on Lp(a) levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: This subject-level meta-analysis includes 5256 patients (1371 on placebo and 3885 on statin) from six randomized trials, three statin-vs.-placebo trials, and three statin-vs.-statin trials, with pre- and on-treatment (4-104 weeks) Lp(a) levels. Statins included atorvastatin 10 mg/day and 80 mg/day, pravastatin 40 mg/day, rosuvastatin 40 mg/day, and ...
#1Chunrong Li (JLU: Jilin University)H-Index: 6
#2Xiujuan Wu (JLU: Jilin University)H-Index: 10
Last. Kangding Liu (JLU: Jilin University)H-Index: 9
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Abstract The occurrence of neurological diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, neuroimmune diseases, and cerebrovascular disorders is closely related to neuroinflammation. Inflammation is a response against infection or injury. Genetic abnormalities, the aging process, or environmental factors can lead to dysregulation of the inflammatory response. Our immune system can cause massive damage when the inflammatory response becomes dysregulated. Inflammatory resolution is an effective proc...
Cited By1
#1Costantino Balestra ('ENS Paris': École Normale Supérieure)H-Index: 22
#2Kate Lambrechts ('ENS Paris': École Normale Supérieure)H-Index: 10
Last. Pierre Lafère ('ENS Paris': École Normale Supérieure)H-Index: 10
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Inflammation is an adaptive response to both external and internal stimuli including infection, trauma, surgery, ischemia-reperfusion, or malignancy. A number of studies indicate that physical activity is an effective means of reducing acute systemic and low-level inflammation occurring in different pathological conditions and in the recovery phase after disease. As a proof-of-principle, we hypothesized that low-intensity workout performed under modified oxygen supply would elicit a “metabolic e...
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