Conditioned Variation in Heart Rate During Static Breath-Holds in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

Published on Nov 24, 2020in Frontiers in Physiology4.566
路 DOI :10.3389/FPHYS.2020.604018
Andreas Fahlman30
Estimated H-index: 30
,
Bruno Cozzi24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UNIPD: University of Padua)
+ 4 AuthorsVincent M. Janik39
Estimated H-index: 39
(Sea Mammal Research Unit)
Sources
Abstract
Previous reports suggested the existence of direct somatic motor control over heart rate (f H) responses during diving in some marine mammals, as the result of a cognitive and/or learning process rather than being a reflexive response. This would be beneficial for O2 storage management, but would also allow ventilation-perfusion matching for selective gas exchange, where O2 and CO2 can be exchanged with minimal exchange of N2. Such a mechanism explains how air breathing marine vertebrates avoid diving related gas bubble formation during repeated dives, and how stress could interrupt this mechanism and cause excessive N2 exchange. To investigate the conditioned response, we measured the f H-response before and during static breath-holds in three bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) when shown a visual symbol to perform either a long (LONG) or short (SHORT) breath-hold, or during a spontaneous breath-hold without a symbol (NS). The average f H (if Hstart), and the rate of change in f H (dif H/dt) during the first 20 s of the breath-hold differed between breath-hold types. In addition, the minimum instantaneous f H (if Hmin), and the average instantaneous f H during the last 10 s (if Hend) also differed between breath-hold types. The dif H/dt was greater, and the if Hstart, if Hmin, and if Hend were lower during a LONG as compared with either a SHORT, or an NS breath-hold (P < 0.05). Even though the NS breath-hold dives were longer in duration as compared with SHORT breath-hold dives, the dif H/dt was greater and the if Hstart, if Hmin, and if Hend were lower during the latter (P < 0.05). In addition, when the dolphin determined the breath-hold duration (NS), the f H was more variable within and between individuals and trials, suggesting a conditioned capacity to adjust the f H-response. These results suggest that dolphins have the capacity to selectively alter the f H-response during diving and provide evidence for significant cardiovascular plasticity in dolphins.
馃摉 Papers frequently viewed together
2020
4 Authors (Leonie Zerweck, ..., Uwe Klose)
References72
Newest
Elements in the medullary ventral respiratory column nuclei and dorsal respiratory group interact with the Kolliker-Fuse and medial parabrachial nuclei to generate the breathing rhythm and pattern. Triphasic eupnea consists of inspiratory [I], post-inspiratory [post-I], and late-expiratory [E2] phases. Mesencephalic zones exert modulatory influences upon respiratory rhythm generating circuitry, sympathetic oscillators, and parasympathetic nuclei. The earliest evidence supporting this derives fro...
Source
#1Andreas FahlmanH-Index: 30
#2Alicia Borque-Espinosa (University of Valencia)H-Index: 4
Last. Julie Rocho-LevineH-Index: 10
view all 7 authors...
In the current study, we used breath-by-breath respirometry to evaluate respiratory physiology under voluntary control in a male beluga calf [Delphinapterus leucas, body mass range (M b): 151-175 kg], an adult female (estimated M b = 500-550 kg) and a juvenile male (M b = 279 kg) false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) housed in managed care. Our results suggest that the measured breathing frequency (f R) is lower, while tidal volume (V T) is significantly greater as compared with allometric p...
Source
#1Andreas FahlmanH-Index: 30
#2Stefan MiedlerH-Index: 5
Last. Ashley M. Blawas (Duke University)H-Index: 4
view all 9 authors...
In the current study we used transthoracic echocardiography to measure stroke volume (SV), heart rate (fH), and cardiac output (CO) in adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), a male beluga calf (Delphinapterus leucas, body mass [Mb] range: 151-175 kg), and an adult female false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens, estimated Mb: 500-550 kg) housed in managed care. We also recorded continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) in the beluga, bottlenose dolphin, false killer whale, killer whale (Orcinu...
Source
#1Anthony G. Schache (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 46
#2Adrian K. M. Lai (SFU: Simon Fraser University)H-Index: 9
Last. Marcus G. Pandy (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 75
view all 5 authors...
ABSTRACT We explored how humans adjust the stance phase mechanical function of their major lower-limb joints (hip, knee, ankle) during maximum acceleration sprinting. Experimental data [motion capture and ground reaction force (GRF)] were recorded from eight participants as they performed overground sprinting trials. Six alternative starting locations were used to obtain a dataset that incorporated the majority of the acceleration phase. Experimental data were combined with an inverse-dynamics-b...
Source
#1Siri L. Elmegaard (AU: Aarhus University)H-Index: 3
#2Birgitte I. McDonald (Moss Landing Marine Laboratories)H-Index: 21
Last. Peter T. Madsen (AU: Aarhus University)H-Index: 65
view all 3 authors...
ABSTRACT Pronounced dive responses through peripheral vasoconstriction and bradycardia enable prolonged apnoea in marine mammals. For most vertebrates, the dive response is initiated upon face immersion, but little is known about the physical drivers of diving and surfacing heart rate in cetaceans whose faces are always mostly submerged. Using two trained harbour porpoises instrumented with an ECG-measuring sound-and-movement tag (DTAG-3), we investigated the initiation and progression of bradyc...
Source
Source
#1Tim BayneH-Index: 26
#2David H. BrainardH-Index: 56
Last. Barbara WebbH-Index: 33
view all 11 authors...
Eleven authors with disparate relevant backgrounds give their view on what is meant by the word 鈥渃ognition鈥.
Source
#1Natalie Bickett (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 1
#2Michael S. Tift (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 13
Last. Paul J. Ponganis (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 43
view all 4 authors...
Source
#1Andreas FahlmanH-Index: 30
#2Stefan MiedlerH-Index: 5
Last. F. CautureH-Index: 1
view all 8 authors...
The dive response is well documented for marine mammals, and includes a significant reduction in heart rate (fH) during submersion as compared while breathing at the surface. In the current study we assessed the influence of the Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) while estimating the resting fH while breathing. Using transthoracic echocardiography we measured fH, and stroke volume (SV) during voluntary surface apneas at rest up to 255鈥塻, and during recovery from apnea in 11 adult bottlenose dolp...
Source
#1Marek Malik (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 92
#2Katerina Hnatkova (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 43
Last. Markus Zabel (GAU: University of G枚ttingen)H-Index: 32
view all 6 authors...
Source
Cited By10
Newest
#2Gordon D. Hastie (Sea Mammal Research Unit)H-Index: 19
This research was funded as part of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Offshore Energy Strategic Environmental Assessment Programme. National Capability funding was provided by the Natural Environment Research Council to the Sea Mammal Research Unit grant number: NE/R015007/1. Supplementary funding supporting K.A.B. was provided by the Natural Environment Research Council grant numbers: NE/M013723/1 and NE/M01357X/1.
Source
Source
Plasticity in the cardiac function of a marine mammal facilitates rapid adjustments to the contrasting metabolic demands of breathing at the surface and diving during an extended apnea. By matching...
Source
#1Yuuki Y. Watanabe (National Institute of Polar Research)H-Index: 29
#2Jeremy A. Goldbogen (Stanford University)H-Index: 32
Wild animals are under selective pressure to optimise energy budgets; therefore, quantifying energy expenditure, intake and allocation to specific activities is important if we are to understand how animals survive in their environment. One approach toward estimating energy budgets has involved measuring oxygen consumption rates under controlled conditions and constructing allometric relationships across species. However, studying 'giant' marine vertebrates (e.g. pelagic sharks, whales) in this ...
Source
#1Sean D. Twiss (Durham University)H-Index: 20
#2Naomi Brannan (Durham University)H-Index: 1
Last. Simon Moss (St And: University of St Andrews)H-Index: 17
view all 6 authors...
Measures of heart rate variability (and heart rate more generally) are providing powerful insights into the physiological drivers of behaviour. Resting heart rate variability (HRV) can be used as an indicator of individual differences in temperament and reactivity to physical and psychological stress. There is increasing interest in deriving such measures from free ranging wild animals, where individuals are exposed to the natural and anthropogenic stressors of life. We describe a robust, extern...
Source
#1Andreas FahlmanH-Index: 30
#2Kagari Aoki (UTokyo: University of Tokyo)H-Index: 12
Last. Danuta M. WisniewskaH-Index: 13
view all 15 authors...
Source
#1Andreas FahlmanH-Index: 30
#2Michael J. Moore (WHOI: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)H-Index: 60
Last. Randall S. Wells (Chicago Zoological Society)H-Index: 69
view all 3 authors...
Decompression theory has been mainly based on studies on terrestrial mammals, and may not translate well to marine mammals. However, evidence that marine mammals experience gas bubbles during diving is growing, causing concern that these bubbles may cause gas emboli pathology (GEP) under unusual circumstances. Marine mammal management, and usual avoidance, of gas emboli and GEP, or the bends, became a topic of intense scientific interest after sonar-exposed, mass-stranded deep-diving whales were...
Source
#1Cristina Otero-Sabio (UNIPD: University of Padua)
#2Cinzia Centelleghe (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 10
Last. Antonella Peruffo (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 12
view all 8 authors...
The lungs of cetaceans undergo anatomical and physiological adaptations that facilitate extended breath-holding during dives. Here, we present new insights on the ontogeny of the microscopic anatomy of the terminal portion of the airways of the lungs in five cetacean species: the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus); the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), the Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris); the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)....
Source
#1Ashley M. Blawas (Duke University)H-Index: 4
#2Kathryn E. Ware (Duke University)H-Index: 10
Last. Jason A. Somarelli (Duke University)H-Index: 22
view all 12 authors...
Ischemic events, such as ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke, are the number one cause of death globally. Ischemia prevents blood, carrying essential nutrients and oxygen, from reaching the tissues leading to cell death, tissue death, and eventual organ failure. While humans are relatively intolerant to these ischemic events, other species, such as marine mammals, have evolved remarkable tolerance to chronic ischemia/reperfusion during diving. Here we capitalized on the unique adaptations...
Source
This website uses cookies.
We use cookies to improve your online experience. By continuing to use our website we assume you agree to the placement of these cookies.
To learn more, you can find in our Privacy Policy.