DNA damage signaling in the cellular responses to mustard vesicants.

Published on Jun 15, 2020in Toxicology Letters3.569
· DOI :10.1016/J.TOXLET.2020.03.008
Yi-Hua Jan8
Estimated H-index: 8
(RU: Rutgers University),
Diane E. Heck4
Estimated H-index: 4
(NYMC: New York Medical College)
+ 1 AuthorsJeffrey D. Laskin1
Estimated H-index: 1
(RU: Rutgers University)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract Mustard vesicants, including sulfur mustard (2,2′-dichlorodiethyl sulfide, SM) and nitrogen mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl)methylamine, HN2) are cytotoxic blistering agents synthesized for chemical warfare. Because they contain highly reactive electrophilic chloroethyl side chains, they readily react with cellular macromolecules like DNA forming monofunctional and bifunctional adducts. By targeting DNA, mustards can compromise genomic integrity, disrupt the cell cycle, and cause mutations and cytotoxicity. To protect against genotoxicity following exposure to mustards, cells initiate a DNA damage response (DDR). This involves activation of signaling cascades including ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related) and DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic unit). Signaling induced by the DDR leads to the recruitment and activation of repair related proteins such as H2AX and p53 to sites of DNA lesions. Excessive DNA modifications by mustards can overwhelm DNA repair leading to single and double strand DNA breaks, cytotoxicity and tissue damage, sometimes leading to cancer. Herein we summarize DDR signaling pathways induced by SM, HN2 and the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). At the present time, little is known about how mustard-induced DNA damage leads to the activation of DDR signaling. A better understanding of mechanisms by which mustard vesicants induce the DDR may lead to the development of countermeasures effective in mitigating tissue injury.
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Introduction Sulfur mustard (SM) is chemically, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide and a strong alkylating agent that causes cytotoxicity and blisters on skin. In laboratory animal models, SM is extremely lethal. Since no specific antidote has been proposed, decontamination upon contact is the recommended procedure. Several antidotes have been screened for SM, and in that sulfanyl compounds, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and S-2(2-aminoethylamino) ethylphenyl sulfide (DRDE-07) showed good protection. Since ...
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