γδ T Cell-Secreted XCL1 Mediates Anti-CD3-Induced Oral Tolerance

Published on Nov 15, 2019in Journal of Immunology5.422
· DOI :10.4049/JIMMUNOL.1900784
Rafael M. Rezende19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Brigham and Women's Hospital),
Brenda Naemi Nakagaki8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UFMG: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais)
+ 9 AuthorsHoward L. Weiner167
Estimated H-index: 167
: Oral tolerance is defined as the specific suppression of cellular and/or humoral immune responses to an Ag by prior administration of the Ag through the oral route. Although the investigation of oral tolerance has classically involved Ag feeding, we have found that oral administration of anti-CD3 mAb induced tolerance through regulatory T (Treg) cell generation. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unknown. In this study, we show that conventional but not plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) are required for anti-CD3-induced oral tolerance. Moreover, oral anti-CD3 promotes XCL1 secretion by small intestine lamina propria γδ T cells that, in turn, induces tolerogenic XCR1+ DC migration to the mesenteric lymph node, where Treg cells are induced and oral tolerance is established. Consistent with this, TCRδ-/- mice did not develop oral tolerance upon oral administration of anti-CD3. However, XCL1 was not required for oral tolerance induced by fed Ags, indicating that a different mechanism underlies this effect. Accordingly, oral administration of anti-CD3 enhanced oral tolerance induced by fed MOG35-55 peptide, resulting in less severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, which was associated with decreased inflammatory immune cell infiltration in the CNS and increased Treg cells in the spleen. Thus, Treg cell induction by oral anti-CD3 is a consequence of the cross-talk between γδ T cells and tolerogenic DCs in the gut. Furthermore, anti-CD3 may serve as an adjuvant to enhance oral tolerance to fed Ags.
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