Crystal structure and substrate-induced activation of ADAMTS13.

Published on Aug 22, 2019in Nature Communications12.121
· DOI :10.1038/S41467-019-11474-5
Anastasis Petri2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Imperial College London),
Hyo Jung Kim2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Nottingham)
+ 6 AuthorsJames T. B. Crawley30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Imperial College London)
Sources
Abstract
Platelet recruitment to sites of blood vessel damage is highly dependent upon von Willebrand factor (VWF). VWF platelet-tethering function is proteolytically regulated by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13. Proteolysis depends upon shear-induced conformational changes in VWF that reveal the A2 domain cleavage site. Multiple ADAMTS13 exosite interactions are involved in recognition of the unfolded A2 domain. Here we report through kinetic analyses that, in binding VWF, the ADAMTS13 cysteine-rich and spacer domain exosites bring enzyme and substrate into proximity. Thereafter, binding of the ADAMTS13 disintegrin-like domain exosite to VWF allosterically activates the adjacent metalloprotease domain to facilitate proteolysis. The crystal structure of the ADAMTS13 metalloprotease to spacer domains reveals that the metalloprotease domain exhibits a latent conformation in which the active-site cleft is occluded supporting the requirement for an allosteric change to enable accommodation of the substrate. Our data demonstrate that VWF functions as both the activating cofactor and substrate for ADAMTS13. The plasma metalloprotease ADAMTS13 regulates the platelet-tethering function of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in a shear-dependent manner. Here the authors present the ADAMTS13 crystal structure of the 70kDa N-terminal metalloprotease to spacer domains, and using kinetic measurements they identify a substrate binding induced allosteric mechanism for ADAMTS13, where VWF functions both as an activating cofactor and substrate.
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References49
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#1Joshua MuiaH-Index: 7
#2Jian ZhuH-Index: 10
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The metalloprotease ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats member 13) prevents microvascular thrombosis by cleaving von Willebrand factor (VWF) within platelet-rich thrombi, and cleavage depends on allosteric activation of ADAMTS13 by the substrate VWF. Human ADAMTS13 has a short propeptide, metalloprotease (M), disintegrin-like (D), thrombospondin-1 (T), Cys-rich (C), and spacer (S) domains (proximal domains), followed by 7 T and 2 CUB (complement compone...
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Human ADAMTS13 is a multidomain protein with metalloprotease (M), disintegrin-like (D), thrombospondin-1 (T), Cys-rich (C), and spacer (S) domains, followed by 7 additional T domains and 2 CUB (complement components C1r and C1s, sea urchin protein Uegf, and bone morphogenetic protein-1) domains. ADAMTS13 inhibits the growth of von Willebrand factor (VWF)–platelet aggregates by cleaving the cryptic Tyr1605-Met1606 bond in the VWF A2 domain. ADAMTS13 is regulated by substrate-induced allosteric ac...
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Summary Background Recently, conformational activation of ADAMTS-13 was identified. This mechanism showed the evolution from a condensed conformation, in which the proximal MDTCS and distal T2-CUB2 domains are in close contact with each other, to an activated, open structure due to binding with von Willebrand factor (VWF). Objectives Identification of cryptic epitope/exosite exposure after conformational activation and of sites of flexibility in ADAMTS-13. Methods The activating effect of 25 ant...
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ADAMTS13 proteolytically regulates the platelet-tethering function of von Willebrand factor (VWF). ADAMTS13 function is dependent upon multiple exosites that specifically bind the unraveled VWF A2 domain and enable proteolysis. We carried out a comprehensive functional analysis of the ADAMTS13 cysteine-rich (Cys-rich) domain using engineered glycans, sequence swaps, and single point mutations in this domain. Mutagenesis of Cys-rich domain–charged residues had no major effect on ADAMTS13 function...
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