Tough double network elastomers reinforced by the amorphous cellulose network

Published on Sep 12, 2019in Polymer4.231
· DOI :10.1016/J.POLYMER.2019.121686
Joji Murai1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Hokkaido University),
Tasuku Nakajima35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Hokkaido University)
+ 4 AuthorsJian Ping Gong79
Estimated H-index: 79
(Hokkaido University)
Abstract Amorphous cellulose-based tough double-network (DN) elastomers were successfully fabricated. These elastomers comprise interpenetrated poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) network as the soft matrix and the amorphous cellulose network as the brittle component. Unlike carbon-black-filled conventional rubbers, the obtained cellulose/PEA DN elastomers are transparent and can be dyed without any color limitation. Although the cellulose network in the DN elastomer comprises only 2.55 wt%, such cellulose network efficiently reinforces in toughness (10 times), stiffness (28 times), strength (8 times), and durability of the DN elastomer compared to the PEA elastomer. The structure and toughening mechanism of the cellulose/PEA DN elastomers are different from previously reported cellulose composites, in which cellulose nanocrystals were used simply as fillers. Upon deformation, the brittle cellulose network in the DN elastomer is ruptured sacrificially to dissipate energy, which effectively prevents crack propagation. The damaged cellulose network recovers its original structure to show recoverable mechanical properties by thermal annealing.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
146 Citations
8 Citations
20103.14Soft Matter
1 Author (Jian Ping Gong)
1,209 Citations
#1Naoyuki Sakumichi (Ochanomizu University)H-Index: 6
#2Ko Okumura (Ochanomizu University)H-Index: 25
Needs to impart appropriate elasticity and high toughness to viscoelastic polymer materials are ubiquitous in industries such as concerning automobiles and medical devices. One of the major problems to overcome for toughening is catastrophic failure linked to a velocity jump, i.e., a sharp transition in the velocity of crack propagation occurred in a narrow range of the applied load. However, its physical origin has remained an enigma despite previous studies over 60 years. Here, we propose an e...
15 CitationsSource
#1Tasuku Nakajima (Hokkaido University)H-Index: 35
Although conventional polymer gels are known as mechanically weak materials, their fracture toughness can be effectively improved by introducing weak and brittle bonds into soft and stretchy polymer networks. This toughening method, denoted as the ‘sacrificial bond principle’, has been recently proposed. In this focus review, I describe some extremely tough gels prepared using this principle, e.g., double- or multiple-network gels with high water content featuring covalent sacrificial bonds, sel...
26 CitationsSource
#1Atsushi Kubo (UTokyo: University of Tokyo)H-Index: 5
#2Yoshitaka Umeno (UTokyo: University of Tokyo)H-Index: 19
Velocity mode transition of dynamic crack propagation in hyperviscoelastic materials: A continuum model study
11 CitationsSource
#2Marcos Mariano (CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)H-Index: 18
Last. Alain Dufresne (CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)H-Index: 118
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were isolated from soy hulls by acid sulfuric hydrolysis. The resulting CNCs were characterized using TEM, AFM, WAXS, elemental analysis and TGA. The CNCs have a high crystallinity, specific surface area and aspect ratio. The aspect ratio (around 100) is the largest ever reported in the literature for a plant cellulose source. These CNCs were used as a reinforcing phase to prepare nanocomposite films by casting/evaporation using natural rubber as matrix. Th...
113 CitationsSource
#1Hui Jie Zhang (Hokkaido University)H-Index: 5
#2Tao Lin Sun (Hokkaido University)H-Index: 21
Last. Jian Ping Gong (Hokkaido University)H-Index: 79
view all 10 authors...
: A series of physical double-network hydrogels is synthesized based on an amphiphilic triblock copolymer. The gel, which contains strong hydrophobic domains and sacrificial dynamic bonds of hydrogen bonds, is stiff and tough, and even stiffens in concentrated saline solution. Furthermore, due to its supramolecular structure, the gel features improved self-healing and self-recovery abilities.
268 CitationsSource
#1Yoshihiro Morishita (Bridgestone)H-Index: 7
#2Katsuhiko Tsunoda (Bridgestone)H-Index: 4
Last. Kenji Urayama (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 36
view all 3 authors...
The crack growth dynamics of the carbon-black (CB) filled elastomers is studied experimentally and analyzed while focusing on both kinetics and crack tip profiles. The CB amounts are varied to change the mechanical properties of the elastomers. Static crack growth measurements simultaneously reveal the discontinuous-like transition of the crack growth rate v between the "slow mode" (v≈10^{-5}-10^{-3} m/s) and "fast mode" (v≈10^{-1}-10^{2} m/s) in a narrow range of the input tearing energy Γ and ...
30 CitationsSource
#1Takahiro MatsudaH-Index: 6
#2Tasuku NakajimaH-Index: 35
Last. Jian Ping GongH-Index: 79
view all 8 authors...
Double network (DN) gels, consisting of a brittle first and flexible second network, have been known to be extremely tough and functional hydrogels. In a DN gel subjected to force, the brittle first network breaks prior to the fracture of the flexible network. This process, referred to as internal fracture, dissipates energy and increases the energy required to completely fracture DN gels. Such internal fracture macroscopically appears as a yielding-like phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to i...
77 CitationsSource
#1Koshiro Sato (Hokkaido University)H-Index: 3
#2Tasuku Nakajima (Hokkaido University)H-Index: 35
Last. Jian Ping Gong (Hokkaido University)H-Index: 79
view all 6 authors...
Novel, tough, strong, and self-healable poly-acrylamide (PAAm) gels are fabricated by inducing an appropriate phase-separation structure using a poor solvent. The phase separation induces a gel-glass-like transition of the PAAm gels, providing the gels an anomalously high modulus (211 MPa), fracture stress (7.13 MPa), and fracture energy (4.16 × 10(4) J m(-2)), while keeping a high solvent content (≈60 vol%).
78 CitationsSource
#1Etienne DucrotH-Index: 10
#2Hélène MontesH-Index: 14
Last. Costantino CretonH-Index: 62
view all 3 authors...
The chain conformation of model interpenetrated network elastomers was studied by small angle neutron scattering. Model double networks (DN) were made by first polymerizing and cross-linking partially deuterated ethyl acrylate in the presence of toluene, then by swelling these networks with either ethyl or methyl acrylate monomers subsequently polymerized. Model triple networks (TN) were made by repeating these swelling/polymerization steps one more time. The samples were then placed in the neut...
22 CitationsSource
#1Abu Bin Imran (Nagoya University)H-Index: 8
#2Kenta Esaki (Nagoya University)H-Index: 1
Last. Yukikazu Takeoka (Nagoya University)H-Index: 40
view all 7 authors...
Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have potential applications in multiple fields; however, a common problem is the brittleness of the resulting structures. Here, the authors report highly stretchable thermosensitive hydrogels by introducing sliding polyrotaxane cross-linkers and ionic groups into the system.
285 CitationsSource
Cited By8
#1Yuchao Wu (Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University)H-Index: 3
#2Yong Zeng (Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University)
Last. Wendi Liu (Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University)H-Index: 14
view all 6 authors...
#1Atsushi Kubo (UTokyo: University of Tokyo)H-Index: 5
#2Naoyuki Sakumichi (UTokyo: University of Tokyo)H-Index: 6
Last. Yoshitaka Umeno (UTokyo: University of Tokyo)H-Index: 19
view all 7 authors...
A crack propagating in a strained rubberlike solid exhibits an abrupt change of the propagation velocity by typically more than {10}^{2}times at a specific threshold strain energy, which is a phenomenon called the ``velocity jump.'' Despite its scientific and industrial significance, the mechanism of the velocity jump had been unsolved for more than 30 years. This paper gives a clear answer to the mechanism, showing dynamic glass transition at the crack tip is the true origin of the crack vel...
#1Tomohiro Miyata (Tohoku University)H-Index: 8
#2Tomohiko Nagao (Tohoku University)H-Index: 1
Last. Hiroshi Jinnai (Tohoku University)H-Index: 60
view all 7 authors...
Nanoparticle-filled rubber under tensile deformation was observed in situ by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the spatial distributions of the local maximum and minimum principal strains...
1 CitationsSource
#1Yang You (SYSU: Sun Yat-sen University)H-Index: 2
#2Min Zhi Rong (SYSU: Sun Yat-sen University)H-Index: 74
Last. Ming Qiu Zhang (SYSU: Sun Yat-sen University)H-Index: 81
view all 3 authors...
1 CitationsSource
#1Xiaoyan Hong (Fujian Normal University)H-Index: 2
#2Hao Ding (UConn: University of Connecticut)H-Index: 6
Last. Fuchuan Ding (Fujian Normal University)H-Index: 4
view all 6 authors...
#1Wei-Wei Yu (Haida: Hainan University)H-Index: 1
#2Wen-Zhe Xu (Haida: Hainan University)H-Index: 2
Last. Ming-Chao Luo (Haida: Hainan University)H-Index: 4
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Although natural rubber (NR) is widely used in rubber industry, the reason why NR owns superior mechanical properties still remains as an open question. Previous studies mainly focus on the molecular chain structure investigation of NR (for example, highly cis stereoregularity) and neglect the importance of non-rubber components (NRC) to strength and toughness. Herein, we use transmission electron microscopy to clearly observe the network constructed by NRC in the NR matrix. Such networ...
5 CitationsSource
#1Yan-Chan Wei (Haida: Hainan University)H-Index: 4
#2Gui-Xiang Liu (Haida: Hainan University)H-Index: 3
Last. Ming-Chao Luo (Haida: Hainan University)H-Index: 4
view all 6 authors...
Abstract The properties of synthetic polyisoprene (PI) cannot rival that of NR, although synthetic PI can achieve similar molecular chain structure (for example molecular weight and molecule chain configuration) to that of NR. It is still a challenge to explore the reason why NR owns superior comprehensive properties. Here our group focuses on the problem why non-rubber components can accelerate crosslinking process from molecular level. From macroscopic perspective, we find that proteins change...
6 CitationsSource