One-pot synthesis of propargylamines using magnetic mesoporous polymelamine formaldehyde/zinc oxide nanocomposite as highly efficient, eco-friendly and durable nanocatalyst: optimization by DOE approach
Magnetic mesoporous polymelamine formaldehyde nanocomposite-incorporating ZnO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using solvothermal and sol–gel methods. Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, vibrating sample magnetometer, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy techniques were then utilized for evaluation of nanocomposites. The as-prepared nanocomposite can be used as heterogeneous nanocatalyst with remarkable performance for A3 coupling reaction toward one-pot synthesis of propargylamine and its derivatives under solvent-less condition. In order to maximize the product yield, the variables, i.e., reaction time, temperature and catalyst amount, were optimized by using a statistical approach. The synthesized nanocomposite can be easily separated from the reaction medium and reused over and over, without significant changes in its catalytic activity.