Dual Effect of Glucuronidation of a Pyrogallol-Type Phytophenol Antioxidant: A Comparison between Scutellarein and Scutellarin
Published on Dec 6, 2018in Molecules3.267
· DOI :10.3390/MOLECULES23123225
To explore whether and how glucuronidation affects pyrogallol-type phytophenols, scutellarein and scutellarin (scutellarein-7-O-glucuronide) were comparatively investigated using a set of antioxidant analyses, including spectrophotometric analysis, UV-vis spectra analysis, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) analysis. In spectrophotometric analyses of the scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+•), and 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide radicals (PTIO•) and the reduction of Cu2+ ions, scutellarein showed lower IC50 values than scutellarin. However, in •O2−-scavenging spectrophotometric analysis, scutellarein showed higher IC50 value than scutellarin. The analysis of UV-Vis spectra obtained after the Fe2+-chelating reaction of scutellarin showed a typical UV-Vis peak (λmax = 611 nm), while scutellarein showed no typical peak. In UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis, mixing of scutellarein with DPPH• yielded MS peaks (m/z 678, 632, 615, 450, 420, 381, 329, 300, 288, 227, 196, 182, 161, and 117) corresponding to the scutellarein-DPPH adduct and an MS peak (m/z 570) corresponding to the scutellarein-scutellarein dimer. Scutellarin, however, generated no MS peak. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that glucuronidation of pyrogallol-type phytophenol antioxidants has a dual effect. On the one hand, glucuronidation can decrease the antioxidant potentials (except for •O2− scavenging) and further lower the possibility of radical adduct formation (RAF), while on the other hand, it can enhance the •O2−-scavenging and Fe2+-chelating potentials.