How does rhinovirus cause the common cold cough

Published on Jan 1, 2016in BMJ Open Respiratory Research
· DOI :10.1136/BMJRESP-2015-000118
Samantha K. Atkinson2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Hull York Medical School),
Laura R. Sadofsky12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Hull York Medical School),
Alyn H. Morice29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Hull York Medical School)
Sources
Abstract
Cough is a protective reflex to prevent aspiration and can be triggered by a multitude of stimuli. The commonest form of cough is caused by upper respiratory tract infection and has no benefit to the host. The virus hijacks this natural defence mechanism in order to propagate itself through the population. Despite the resolution of the majority of cold symptoms within 2 weeks, cough can persist for some time thereafter. Unfortunately, the mechanism of infectious cough brought on by pathogenic viruses, such as human rhinovirus, during colds, remains elusive despite the extensive work that has been undertaken. For socioeconomic reasons, it is imperative we identify the mechanism of cough. There are several theories which have been proposed as the causative mechanism of cough in rhinovirus infection, encompassing a range of different processes. Those of which hold most promise are physical disruption of the epithelial lining, excess mucus production and an inflammatory response to rhinovirus infection which may be excessive. And finally, neuronal modulation, the most convincing hypothesis, is thought to potentiate cough long after the original stimulus has been cleared. All these hypotheses will be briefly covered in the following sections.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
201560.39The Lancet
279 Citations
20148.83Thorax
70 Citations
81 Citations
References199
Newest
#1Robyn J. Laing (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 4
#2Ajay Dhaka (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 11
The ability of the body to perceive noxious stimuli lies in a heterogeneous group of primary somatosensory neurons termed nociceptors. The molecular receptors of noxious mechanical, temperature, or chemical stimuli are expressed in these neurons and have drawn considerable attention as possible targets for analgesic development to improve treatment for the millions who suffer from chronic pain conditions. A number of thermoTRPs, a subset of the transient receptor potential family of ion channels...
62 CitationsSource
#1Sara J. Bonvini (Imperial College London)H-Index: 4
#2Mark A. Birrell (Imperial College London)H-Index: 48
Last. Maria G. Belvisi (Imperial College London)H-Index: 82
view all 14 authors...
Activation of TRPV4 causes vagal nerve depolarisation, single airway fibre firing and reflex cough in the guinea pig (GP) through activating nodose derived Aδ fibres(Belvisi M. et al. AJRCCM:2013.A5265). Ca 2+ signal and fibre firing demonstrated a short delay prior to activation, suggesting an indirect mechanism. Activation of TRPV4 possibly on the urothelium has been linked to ATP release and activation of P2X3 receptors on bladder afferents (Aizawa N. et al . Neuro Urod,2010 : 148-55), and so...
1 CitationsSource
#1Ozen K. Basoglu (Ege University)H-Index: 19
#2Peter J. Barnes (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 220
Last. Amir Pelleg (Drexel University)H-Index: 25
view all 4 authors...
BACKGROUND Extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) stimulates vagal C and Ad fibers in the lung, resulting in pronounced bronchoconstriction and cough mediated by P2X2/3 receptors located on vagal sensory nerve terminals. We investigated the effects of nebulized ATP on cough and symptoms in control subjects, healthy smokers, and patients with COPD and compared these responses to the effects of inhaled adenosine, the metabolite of ATP. METHODS We studied the effects of inhaled ATP and adeno...
26 CitationsSource
#1Rayid Abdulqawi (MAHSC: Manchester Academic Health Science Centre)H-Index: 4
#2Rachel Dockry (MAHSC: Manchester Academic Health Science Centre)H-Index: 11
Last. Jaclyn A. Smith (MAHSC: Manchester Academic Health Science Centre)H-Index: 49
view all 7 authors...
Summary Background Preclinical studies suggest that P2X3 receptors are expressed by airway vagal afferent nerves and contribute to the hypersensitisation of sensory neurons. P2X3 receptors could mediate sensitisation of the cough reflex, leading to chronic cough. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a first-in-class oral P2X3 antagonist, AF-219, to reduce cough frequency in patients with refractory chronic cough. Methods We did a double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period, crossover study a...
279 CitationsSource
#1Theodore J. WitekH-Index: 7
#2David L. RamseyH-Index: 4
Last. Donald K. RikerH-Index: 5
view all 4 authors...
BACKGROUND: The common cold is the most frequently experienced infection among humans, but limited data exist to characterize the onset, duration, severity and intersection of symptoms in community-acquired colds. A more complete understanding of the symptom frequency and burden in naturally occurring colds is needed. METHODOLOGY: We characterized common cold symptoms from 226 cold episodes experienced by 104 male or female subjects. Subjects were enrolled in the work environment in an attempt t...
18 CitationsSource
#7Lei Li (SJTU: Shanghai Jiao Tong University)
Objective/Hypothesis Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by significant goblet hyperplasia and mucus hypersecretion. However, the molecular mechanism underlying mucin overexpression in CRSwNP has not been well characterized. This study sought to assess the expression of SAM-pointed domain-containing Ets-like factor (SPDEF) and its regulation of mucin production in CRSwNP patients. Study design Prospective laboratory-based study. Methods Polyp and control nasal tiss...
8 CitationsSource
The evolving concept of cough hypersensitivity, an over activity of the afferent sensory nerves in the upper airways, has given new insights into the pathophysiology underlying chronic cough. Armed with this new information drug development aimed at reducing cough reflex sensitivity to normal has, for the first time, led to successful clinical studies. This review outlines the concepts underlying the inflammatory processes leading to cough hypersensitivity and demonstrates how knowledge of the m...
3 CitationsSource
#1Peter V. Dicpinigaitis (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)H-Index: 33
#2Amit Tibb (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)H-Index: 5
Last. Cathy L. Poore (P&G: Procter & Gamble)H-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Cough is among the symptoms most commonly associated with an acute, viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI), such as the common cold. Two previous studies incorporating capsaicin cough challenge methodology have demonstrated that cough reflex sensitivity is transiently enhanced during URI. These studies used single measurements of cough reflex sensitivity during the URI period. To our knowledge, no previous studies have included multiple measurements of cough reflex sensitivity to...
14 CitationsSource
#1S Khalid (University of Manchester)H-Index: 3
#2Robert D. Murdoch (GSK: GlaxoSmithKline)H-Index: 16
Last. Jaclyn A. Smith (University of Manchester)H-Index: 49
view all 9 authors...
Background Inhalation of capsaicin, the extract of hot chili peppers, induces coughing in both animals and human subjects through activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) on airway sensory nerves. Therefore the TRPV1 receptor is an attractive target for the development of antitussive agents. Objective We sought to assess the antitussive effect of TRPV1 antagonism in patients with refractory chronic cough. Methods Twenty-one subjects with refractory chronic cough (>8 weeks) ...
105 CitationsSource
#1Clayton W. Winkler (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 11
#2Katherine G. Taylor (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 6
Last. Karin E. Peterson (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 26
view all 3 authors...
Extracellular let-7b, a microRNA found in the central nervous system, affects neurons through its interaction with Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), but with divergent outcomes in different neurons. Lehmann et al . found that let-7b stimulation of cortical and hippocampal neurons led to neuronal apoptosis, whereas Park et al . report that let-7b activation of TLR7 stimulated the cation channel transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) on dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons and induced pain responses. T...
24 CitationsSource
Cited By20
Newest
Last. M.S.M. MisenanH-Index: 2
view all 13 authors...
The wide availability and diversity of dangerous microbes poses a considerable problem for health professionals and in the development of new healthcare products. Numerous studies have been conducted to develop membrane filters that have antibacterial properties to solve this problem. Without proper protective filter equipment, healthcare providers, essential workers, and the general public are exposed to the risk of infection. A combination of nanotechnology and biosorption is expected to offer...
Source
#1Rasoul MirzaeiH-Index: 7
#2Adeleh Attar (Zanjan University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 1
Last. Sajad Karampoor (IUMS: Iran University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 9
view all 15 authors...
COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infection accompanied by pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has affected millions of people globally. To date, there are no highly efficient therapies for this infection. Probiotic bacteria can interact with the gut microbiome to strengthen the immune system, enhance immune responses, and induce appropriate immune signaling pathways. Several probiotics have been confirmed to reduce the duration of bacterial or ...
4 CitationsSource
#1Matthew Patrick (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 11
#2H. Zhang (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 1
Last. Lam C. Tsoi (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 28
view all 9 authors...
Abstract Background COVID-19 is commonly associated with skin manifestations, and may also exacerbate existing skin diseases, yet the relationship between COVID-19 and skin diseases remains unclear. Objective By investigating this relationship through a multi-omics approach, we sought to ascertain whether patients with skin conditions are more susceptible to COVID-19. Methods We conducted an epidemiological study and then compared gene expression across nine different inflammatory skin condition...
5 CitationsSource
#1Alexandria K Driessen (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 7
#2Anna-Claire Devlin ('QUB': Queen's University Belfast)H-Index: 1
Last. Lorcan McGarvey ('QUB': Queen's University Belfast)H-Index: 54
view all 7 authors...
Chronic cough can be a troublesome clinical problem. Current thinking is that increased activity and/or enhanced sensitivity of the peripheral and central neural pathways mediates chronic cough via processes similar to those associated with the development of chronic pain. While inflammation is widely thought to be involved in the development of chronic cough, the true mechanisms causing altered neural activity and sensitisation remain largely unknown. In this back-to-basic perspective article w...
2 CitationsSource
#1Samantha K. Atkinson (Hull York Medical School)H-Index: 2
#2Alyn H. Morice (Hull York Medical School)H-Index: 2
Last. Laura R. Sadofsky (Hull York Medical School)H-Index: 12
view all 3 authors...
Human rhinovirus (RV) is the most common cause of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and chronic airway disease exacerbation. Cough is present in 50–80% of URTI cases, accompanied by heightened airway hypersensitivity, yet no effective treatment currently exists for this infectious cough. The mechanism by which RV causes cough and airway hypersensitivity in URTI is still unknown despite recent advances in potential therapies for chronic cough. The effect of RV-16 infection (MOI 1) on intra...
2 CitationsSource
Novel Coronavirus (COVID 19) has usurped human peace and mobility. Since December 2019, the virus has claimed the lives of 87,816 people across the globe as of April 9, 2020 with India reporting a high case fatality of 3.4%. Among the vulnerable population, elderly people, and patients with comorbidities such as diabetes, chronic life-threatening illnesses, such as COPD and advanced malignancies are susceptible to COVID-19 infection and may have poor clinical outcomes. Considering the imbalance ...
2 CitationsSource
#1Woo-Jung Song (UOU: University of Ulsan)H-Index: 26
#2Jin An (UOU: University of Ulsan)H-Index: 1
Last. Lorcan McGarvey ('QUB': Queen's University Belfast)H-Index: 54
view all 3 authors...
: Chronic cough is a common clinical condition with significant impact on quality of life and for which effective therapy remains an unmet clinical need. Over the past decade, there has been a major shift in how we approach this problem, driven by better appreciation of the clinical manifestation of chronic cough and an improved understanding of the associated neurobiology. "Cough hypersensitivity syndrome" has been proposed as a new diagnostic term for chronic cough, encompassing different phen...
1 CitationsSource
#1Sabrina Bajwah ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 15
#2Andrew Wilcock (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 31
Last. Irene J Higginson ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 115
view all 15 authors...
Globally, the number of people affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly increasing. In most (>80%), the illness is relatively mild and can be self-managed out of hospital. However, in about 20% the illness causes respiratory compromise severe enough to require hospital admission [1]. Patients with severe and critical disease need full active treatment. This may include oxygen for hypoxaemia and ventilatory support, along with optimal management of complications, e.g. super-impo...
55 CitationsSource
Source
#1Xin‐hui Yuan (Lanzhou University)H-Index: 1
#2Yu‐mei Li (Lanzhou University)H-Index: 1
Last. Yu Jin (Nanjing Medical University)H-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
: This study aimed to assess the clinical characteristics and T-helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 profile of human rhinovirus (HRV) infection in children with bronchiolitis and pneumonia, compared with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). In September 2013 to August 2014, 335 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children below 14 with bronchiolitis and pneumonia were screened for HRV and 13 other respiratory viruses by PCR or reverse transcription PCR. Interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and ...
5 CitationsSource