Pathogenesis of 2,2′-dichlorodiethyl sulfide in hairless guinea pigs

Published on Nov 12, 1993in Toxicology4.099
· DOI :10.1016/0300-483X(93)90116-A
Jeffrey J. Yourick5
Estimated H-index: 5
Jeffrey S. Dawson3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 2 AuthorsLarry W. Mitcheltree12
Estimated H-index: 12
Abstract Developing skin lesions on hairless guinea pigs due to 2,2′-dichlorodiethyl sulfide (sulfur mustard, HD) exposure were examined to determine the time course for the appearance of histopathologic markers in relationship to skin NAD + and NADP + content after HD exposure. Hairless guinea pig skin was exposed to HD for 8 min by means of a vapor cup. Skin punches were taken at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h after HD exposure. Intracellular edema (IE) appeared at 2 h and increased steadily over 24 h. Epidermal necrosis (EN) and pustular epidermatitis (PE) developed at 8 h and reached a maximum at 16 h. Follicular necrosis (FN) appeared at 8 h and increased up to 24 h. Microvesicles (MV) developed between 12–16 h reaching a maximum at 24 h. Niacinamide (750 mg/kg, ip) pretreatment (30-min) reduced the incidence of MV (40%) and FN (45%) at 24 h, but did not reduce IE, EN, or PE. In all animals, skin NAD + content decreased to a minimum (20% of control) at 16 h, but NAD + decreases did not precede microvesicle formation. Skin NADP + content increased (260%) between 1–2 h and returned to control at 4 h. Skin cell NADP + increases may be indicative of an early phase of cellular oxidative stress that may contribute to HD-induced dermal pathogenesis. Since NAD + reductions did not precede microvesication and NAM-induced increases in NAD + content did not delay or reduce early cellular alterations, the contributory role of NAD + to microvesicle formation may be limited and other biochemical changes should be investigated.
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