Cardioprotective effect of embelin on isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in rats: possible involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.

Published on Jun 27, 2014in Life Sciences
· DOI :10.1016/J.LFS.2014.04.035
Bidya Dhar Sahu16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Indian Institute of Chemical Technology),
Harika Anubolu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Indian Institute of Chemical Technology)
+ 4 AuthorsRamakrishna Sistla32
Estimated H-index: 32
(Indian Institute of Chemical Technology)
Abstract Aims Preventive and/or therapeutic interventions using natural products for ischemic heart disease have gained considerable attention worldwide. This study investigated the cardioprotective effect and possible mechanism of embelin, a major constituent of Embelia ribes Burm, using isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction model in rats. Materials and methods Rats were pretreated for three days with embelin (50 mg/kg, p.o) before inducing myocardial injury by administration of ISO (85 mg/kg) subcutaneously at an interval of 24 h for 2 consecutive days. Serum was analyzed for cardiac specific injury biomarkers, lipids and lipoprotein content. Heart tissues were isolated and were used for histopathology, antioxidant and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity assays and western blot analysis. Key findings Results showed that pretreatment with embelin significantly decreased the elevated levels of serum specific cardiac injury biomarkers (CK-MB, LDH and AST), serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins and histopathological changes when compared to ISO-induced controls. Exploration of the underlying mechanisms of embelin action revealed that embelin pretreatment restored the myocardial mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities (NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial redox activity), strengthened antioxidant status and attenuated ISO-induced myocardial lipid peroxidation. Immunoblot analysis revealed that embelin interrupted mitochondria dependent apoptotic damage by increasing the myocardial expression of Bcl-2 and downregulating the expression of Bax, cytochrome c, cleaved-caspase-3 & 9 and PARP. Histopathology findings further strengthened the cardioprotective findings of embelin. Significance Result suggested that embelin may have a potential benefit in preventing ischemic heart disease like myocardial infarction.
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