Results of intravascular stent placement for fibrosing mediastinitis.

Published on Mar 1, 2010in Congenital Heart Disease1.663
· DOI :10.1111/J.1747-0803.2010.00387.X
Matthew E. Ferguson1
Estimated H-index: 1
Allison K. Cabalka30
Estimated H-index: 30
+ 1 AuthorsDonald J. Hagler72
Estimated H-index: 72
(Mayo Clinic)
Objective.  Fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare disorder characterized by an excessive fibrotic reaction in the mediastinum which can result in compromise of mediastinal structures. We sought to evaluate short- and midterm results of intravascular thoracic vessel stent placement for patients with fibrosing mediastinitis. Design.  We reviewed all records of fibrosing mediastinitis patients who were referred for stent placement to treat mediastinal vascular compression over a 7-year period. Catheterization reports and digital angiography were assessed to determine vessel dimension and stent characteristics. Patients.  Thirteen catheterizations were performed in six patients (five females, mean age 39 years, range 23–63) with a range of 1–4 per patient. Interventions.  Four patients were treated with intravascular stents placed percutaneously. One patient underwent surgical intravascular stent placement, and one patient declined surgical therapy. The right pulmonary artery was treated in three patients, the superior vena cava was treated in one patient, and three pulmonary veins were treated in one patient. Outcome Measures.  Pertinent vessel and hemodynamics including immediate short-, and mid-term results were assessed. Procedural complications, midterm follow-up (up to 7 years), and overall survival were determined. Results.  Each intervention resulted in hemodynamic improvement with subsequent clinical improvement. Reintervention was required within 12 months in two of four percutaneously treated patients. One death occurred 4 days after cutting balloon angioplasty in a preexisting pulmonary vein stent. Conclusions.  Percutaneous therapy for vessel compression secondary to fibrosing mediastinitis is an option that is effective in improving short-term vascular patency. In-stent stenosis was a frequent complication in patients with fibrosing mediastinitis, particularly when pulmonary veins were involved. Short- and midterm success can be achieved, but progressive fibrosing mediastinitis remains a difficult clinical problem with repeat dilation of stents and/or additional stent placement necessary to maintain optimal stent patency and improvement in clinical symptomatology.
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