A Unified Approach to Polycyclic Alkaloids of the Ingenamine Estate: Total Syntheses of Keramaphidin B, Ingenamine, and Nominal Njaoamine I.
Published on Aug 27, 2021in Journal of the American Chemical Society14.612
· DOI :10.1021/JACS.1C07955
Many polycyclic marine alkaloids are thought to derive from partly reduced macrocyclic alkylpyridine derivatives via a transannular Diels-Alder reaction that forms their common etheno-bridged diaza-decaline core ("Baldwin-Whitehead hypothesis"). Rather than trying to emulate this biosynthesis pathway, a route to these natural products following purely chemical logic was pursued. Specifically, a Michael/Michael addition cascade provided rapid access to this conspicuous tricyclic scaffold and allowed different handles to be introduced at the bridgehead quarternary center. This flexibility opened opportunities for the formation of the enveloping medium-sized and macrocyclic rings. Ring closing alkyne metathesis (RCAM) proved most reliable and became a recurrent theme en route to keramaphidin B, ingenamine, xestocyclamine A, and nominal njaoamine I (the structure of which had to be corrected in the aftermath of the synthesis). Best results were obtained with molybdenum alkylidyne catalysts endowed with (tripodal) silanolate ligands, which proved fully operative in the presence of tertiary amines, quinoline, and other Lewis basic sites. RCAM was successfully interlinked with macrolactamization, an intricate hydroboration/protonation/alkyl-Suzuki coupling sequence, or ring closing olefin metathesis (RCM) for the closure of the second lateral ring; the use of RCM for the formation of an 11-membered cycle is particularly noteworthy. Equally rare are RCM reactions that leave a pre-existing triple bond untouched, as the standard ruthenium catalysts are usually indiscriminative vis-a-vis the different π-bonds. Of arguably highest significance, however, is the use of two consecutive or even concurrent RCAM reactions en route to nominal njaoamine I as the arguably most complex of the chosen targets.