Determination of chlorinated paraffins (CPs): Analytical conundrums and the pressing need for reliable and relevant standards.
Abstract null null The determination of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) has posed an intractable challenge in analytical chemistry for over three decades. The combination of an as yet unspecifiable number (tens - hundreds of thousands) of individual congeners in mass produced commercial CP mixtures and the steric interactions between them, contrive to defy efforts to characterise their residual occurrences in environmental compartments, food and human tissues. However, recent advances in instrumentation (mass spectrometric detectors and nuclear magnetic resonance), combined with interlaboratory studies, have allowed a better insight into the nature of the conundrums. These include the variability of results, even between experienced laboratories when there is insufficient matching between analytical standards and occurrence profiles, the poor (or no) response of some instrumentation to some CP congener configurations (multiple terminal chlorines or