Determination of chlorinated paraffins (CPs): Analytical conundrums and the pressing need for reliable and relevant standards.

Published on Jan 1, 2022in Chemosphere7.086
· DOI :10.1016/J.CHEMOSPHERE.2021.131878
Alwyn Fernandes11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UEA: University of East Anglia),
Walter Vetter53
Estimated H-index: 53
(University of Hohenheim)
+ 6 AuthorsKerstin Krätschmer6
Estimated H-index: 6
(EU: European Union)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract null null The determination of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) has posed an intractable challenge in analytical chemistry for over three decades. The combination of an as yet unspecifiable number (tens - hundreds of thousands) of individual congeners in mass produced commercial CP mixtures and the steric interactions between them, contrive to defy efforts to characterise their residual occurrences in environmental compartments, food and human tissues. However, recent advances in instrumentation (mass spectrometric detectors and nuclear magnetic resonance), combined with interlaboratory studies, have allowed a better insight into the nature of the conundrums. These include the variability of results, even between experienced laboratories when there is insufficient matching between analytical standards and occurrence profiles, the poor (or no) response of some instrumentation to some CP congener configurations (multiple terminal chlorines or
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References43
Newest
#1Marie MézièreH-Index: 4
#2Philippe MarchandH-Index: 14
Last. Ronan CariouH-Index: 18
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Abstract Reliable human health risk assessment associated with chlorinated paraffins (CPs) exposure is limited by the lack of data on the fate of this complex family of contaminants. To gain knowledge on the accumulation and distribution of CPs in biota after ingestion, laying hens were dietary exposed to technical mixtures of short- (SCCPs), medium- (MCCPs), or long-chain (LCCPs) CPs of various chlorine contents during 91 days, at 200 ng/g of feed, each. Adipose tissue, liver, muscle and serum ...
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#1Kerstin Krätschmer (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 6
#2Alexander Schächtele (EU: European Union)H-Index: 5
Last. Walter Vetter (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 53
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Abstract Infant formula and baby cereal are products specifically intended for a vulnerable consumer group and should therefore be strictly controlled. In this study, we analysed 21 infant formula and 10 instant baby cereal samples for the presence of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) and estimated dietary exposure to these compounds. Results covered short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, globally restricted as persistent organic pollutants in 2017) and medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs, cu...
Source
#1Marie MézièreH-Index: 4
#2Philippe MarchandH-Index: 14
Last. Ronan CariouH-Index: 18
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are a complex family of contaminants. Lack of exposure data and an understanding of the fate of these chemicals in the environment affect our ability to reliably assess the human health risk associated with CP exposure. The present study focused on the evaluation of CP transfer from feed to eggs of laying hens exposed over 91 days. Laying hens were provided feed spiked with five technical mixtures of short-, medium- or long-chain CPs and featuring low or high...
Source
#1Louise M. van Mourik (VU: VU University Amsterdam)H-Index: 8
#2Elwin Janssen (VU: VU University Amsterdam)H-Index: 14
Last. Pim E.G. Leonards (VU: VU University Amsterdam)H-Index: 61
view all 8 authors...
This study presents, for the first time, the successful application of analyzing a whole gas chromatography (GC) chromatogram by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using a continuous repeatable and stable (n = 280) high-resolution (HR) GC fractionation platform with a 96-well plate. Typically with GC- or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, (isomer) standards and/or additional NMR analysis are needed to confirm the identification and/or structure of the analyte of interes...
Source
#1Kerstin Krätschmer (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 6
#2Alexander Schächtele (EU: European Union)H-Index: 5
Last. Walter Vetter (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 53
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs) are high-production volume industrial chemicals that have been previously reported to occur in food, packaging material and the environment. This study presents an assessment of dietary exposure for consumers in Southern Germany based on three different sampling approaches: (i) a classical market basket study (n = 154), (ii) the analysis of ready-made meals from restaurants (n = 10), and (iii) a total diet approach (n = 21). I...
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#1Marco C. Knobloch (Empa: Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology)H-Index: 2
#2Lena Schinkel (Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology)H-Index: 2
Last. Norbert V. Heeb (Empa: Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology)H-Index: 30
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Abstract Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Such substances are toxic, bioaccumulating, transported over long distances and degrade slowly in the environment. Certain bacterial strains of the Sphingomonadacea family are able to degrade POPs, such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). The haloalkane dehalogenase LinB, expressed in certain Sphingomonadacea, is able to catalyze ...
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#1Marie MézièreH-Index: 4
#2Kerstin Krätschmer (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 6
Last. Walter Vetter (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 53
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The risk assessment of chlorinated paraffins (CPs), chemicals of widespread industrial use, is struggling without standardized analytical methods to obtain reliable occurrence data. Indeed, scienti...
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#1Nobuyasu Hanari (AIST: National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology)H-Index: 21
#2Takeshi Nakano (Osaka University)H-Index: 21
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#1Jannik Sprengel (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 7
#2Walter Vetter (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 53
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high-volume chemicals used worldwide in various industries as plasticizers, lubricants, and flame retardants. CPs are produced by chlorination of alkane mixtures which leads to complex products of thousands of homologs and congeners. Classic mass spectrometric analyses of CPs allow determining carbon chain lengths and degrees of chlorination while information on the substitution patterns cannot be derived. Therefore, we performed different one- and two-dimensional...
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#1Norbert V. Heeb (Empa: Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology)H-Index: 30
#2Silvan Iten (Empa: Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology)H-Index: 1
Last. Walter Vetter (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 53
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Abstract The photolytic chlorination of n-alkanes in presence of sulfuryl chloride (SO2Cl2) was explored to produce new standard materials. Five mixtures of chlorinated tetradecanes were synthesized with chlorination degrees (mCl,EA) varying from 43.7% to 59.4% (m/m) based on elemental analysis. Chlorine-enhanced negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CE–NCI–MS) forcing the formation of chloride-adduct ions [M+Cl]- was applied to characterize these materials which all contained tetra-to...
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Cited By2
Newest
#1Walter Vetter (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 53
#2Jannik Sprengel (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 7
Last. Kerstin Krätschmer (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 6
view all 3 authors...
Abstract null null Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high production volume chemicals currently produced and used in higher quantities than any other medium-size polyhalogenated compound (class). In addition, the composition of industrial CP mixtures is highly complex and poorly understood. In this article, we searched in the literature for the beginning of the chlorination of alkanes and how this substance class developed from niche applications to unmatched quantities in various industrial appli...
Source
#1Jannik Sprengel (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 7
#2Kerstin Krätschmer (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 6
Last. Walter Vetter (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 53
view all 3 authors...
Abstract null null Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures, which consist of thousands of individual compounds with no dominant representative. Consequently, knowledge on structure and environmental relevance of individual CP congeners is poor. Similarly to the synthesis of individual CPs, the generation of less complex CP mixtures that can be thoroughly analyzed may be used to overcome some drawbacks of the highly complex technical CP mixtures. Here, we present a new synthesis approach...
Source
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