The Potential Role of GLP-1 Analogues in Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes

Diabetes prevalence is increasing, according to the International Diabetes Federation report in 2013, 382 Millions have diabetes, and the number is expected to rise beyond 592 million by 2035, an increase of approximately 55%. Type2 Diabetes Mellitus(T2DM) is associated with Obesity, Dyslipidemia, and Hypertension. Hypertension plays a major role in the development of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). The prevalence of hypertension is higher in people with T2DM than the general public. Macro vascular complications are still the primary cause of death in patients with T2DM.Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RAs) are a new class of Injectable Anti-diabetes Agents (IADA) that provides blood glucose control with weight reduction ability, systolic blood pressure reduction and a noticeable improvement of lipid profile. GLP1-RAs have proven non-inferiority the CVD outcomes. In this review I will discuss the different available members of GLP1-RAs, modes of action and the role of some GUT hormones in the regulation of glucose metabolism. I will also review landmark trials of different types of GLP1-RAs, cost effectiveness and their potential role in the protection from cardiovascular disease, including evidence on weight reduction, HBA1c reduction, systolic blood pressure control and improvement of both lipid and glycemic profiles.
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