Bicuspid Aortic Valve in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: A Review for Primary Care Providers.
Published on May 1, 2021in Pediatrics in Review
· DOI :10.1542/PIR.2019-0307
1. Talha Niaz, MBBS* 2. Jonathan N. Johnson, MD*,† 3. Frank Cetta, MD*,† 4. Timothy M. Olson, MD*,† 5. Donald J. Hagler, MD*,† 1. *Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, and 2. †Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN * Abbreviations: AHA : : American Heart Association BAV : : bicuspid aortic valve TTE : : transthoracic echocardiography Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital heart defect in children, adolescents, and adults. Primary care providers play an important role in screening, referral, and follow-up of these patients and should be aware of the family screening guidelines, sports participation recommendations, and periodic follow-up requirements for adequate surveillance of the complications that arise from bicuspid aortic valve. After reading this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the epidemiology and anatomy of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). 2. Understand the clinical presentation and diagnosis of BAV in infants, children, and adolescents. 3. Identify the various complications of BAV disease. 4. Discuss the management and follow-up requirements for BAV. 5. Analyze the family screening and sports participation guidelines for patients with BAV. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart defect in children, adolescents, and adults. (1) It is a heterogeneous disease that affects both the aortic valve and the aorta. It can lead to many complications, including aortic valve stenosis, regurgitation, or endocarditis. (2)(3) It also can lead to dilation of the aorta, predisposing individuals to a significantly higher risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection. (4) Although most individuals with BAV present with these long-term complications during adulthood, a considerable number of patients may also present during childhood and adolescence with early-onset disease; that may require interventions in up to 12% to 15% of the patients. (5)(6) Therefore, patients with BAV require lifelong follow-up and surveillance. BAV has multiple implications in terms of sports participation and family screening, making it an important subject for primary care providers. This article reviews the anatomy, genetics, presentation, diagnosis, …