Bicuspid Aortic Valve in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: A Review for Primary Care Providers.

Published on May 1, 2021in Pediatrics in Review
· DOI :10.1542/PIR.2019-0307
Talha Niaz8
Estimated H-index: 8
,
Jonathan N. Johnson30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Mayo Clinic)
+ 2 AuthorsDonald J. Hagler89
Estimated H-index: 89
(Mayo Clinic)
Sources
Abstract
1. Talha Niaz, MBBS* 2. Jonathan N. Johnson, MD*,† 3. Frank Cetta, MD*,† 4. Timothy M. Olson, MD*,† 5. Donald J. Hagler, MD*,† 1. *Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, and 2. †Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN * Abbreviations: AHA : : American Heart Association BAV : : bicuspid aortic valve TTE : : transthoracic echocardiography Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital heart defect in children, adolescents, and adults. Primary care providers play an important role in screening, referral, and follow-up of these patients and should be aware of the family screening guidelines, sports participation recommendations, and periodic follow-up requirements for adequate surveillance of the complications that arise from bicuspid aortic valve. After reading this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the epidemiology and anatomy of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). 2. Understand the clinical presentation and diagnosis of BAV in infants, children, and adolescents. 3. Identify the various complications of BAV disease. 4. Discuss the management and follow-up requirements for BAV. 5. Analyze the family screening and sports participation guidelines for patients with BAV. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart defect in children, adolescents, and adults. (1) It is a heterogeneous disease that affects both the aortic valve and the aorta. It can lead to many complications, including aortic valve stenosis, regurgitation, or endocarditis. (2)(3) It also can lead to dilation of the aorta, predisposing individuals to a significantly higher risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection. (4) Although most individuals with BAV present with these long-term complications during adulthood, a considerable number of patients may also present during childhood and adolescence with early-onset disease; that may require interventions in up to 12% to 15% of the patients. (5)(6) Therefore, patients with BAV require lifelong follow-up and surveillance. BAV has multiple implications in terms of sports participation and family screening, making it an important subject for primary care providers. This article reviews the anatomy, genetics, presentation, diagnosis, …
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OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the frequency and utility of echocardiographic examination in patients with all forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and sought to identify clinical variables associated with an abnormal echocardiogram. DESIGN/SETTING: This was a retrospective study of all patients carrying a diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome of any type who were evaluated by a pediatrician or pediatric subspecialist at a single tertiary medical center with an affiliated children's hospital during th...
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Girls and women with Turner syndrome face a lifelong struggle with both congenital heart disease and acquired cardiovascular conditions. Bicuspid aortic valve is common, and many have left-sided he...
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Abstract Background There is little information concerning infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) or mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Currently, IE antibiotic prophylaxis (IEAP) is not recommended for these conditions. Objectives This study sought to describe the clinical and microbiological features of IE in patients with BAV and MVP and compare them with those of IE patients with and without IEAP indication, to determine the potential benefit of IEAP in these cond...
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Background Disease progression of an isolated bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) in children is poorly understood and adult management guidelines may not be applicable. Thus, we sought to evaluate disease progression of pediatric isolated BAV and its relationship to current management practices. Methods Children with a BAV and ≤mild aortic stenosis (AS) and/or aortic regurgitation (AR) at the time of initial evaluation were included in this retrospective cohort study (1/2005-12/2014). Outcomes included...
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Background In patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), complications including progressive aortic stenosis and aortic dilatation develop over time. The morphology of cusp fusion is one of the determinants of the type and severity of these complications. We present the association of morphology of cusp fusion in BAV patients with distinctive genetic syndromes. Methods The Mayo Clinic echocardiography database was retrospectively reviewed to identify patients (age ≤ 22 years) diagnosed with BAV ...
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Background Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) occurs both as an isolated cardiac lesion and in association with congenital heart defects (CHD). Their aim was to identify the incidence and morphology of BAV in patients with coexisting CHD and compare their disease progression to patients with isolated BAV. Methods The Mayo Clinic echocardiography database was retrospectively analyzed to identify pediatric and young adult patients (≤22 years) who were diagnosed with BAV from 1990 to 2015. The morphology ...
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Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart defect and falls in the spectrum of left-sided heart defects, also known as left ventricular outflow tract obstructive (LVOTO) defects. BAV is often identified in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals, but it is associated with serious long term health risks including progressive aortic valve disease (stenosis or regurgitation) and thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. BAV and other LVOTO defects have high heritability. Alt...
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A search of the literature identifies no prospective clinical trials examining the management of athletes or very physically active, asymptomatic people with abnormal cardiac valves. There are also few clinical trials on nonathletes with aortic or mitral valve disease. Consequently, recommendations for athletic participation in people with these conditions are based on cohort analyses of nonathletic subjects and consensus opinion. The 2014 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiolog...
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