Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence after Hepatitis C Virus Therapy with Direct-Acting Antivirals. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Published on Apr 15, 2021in Journal of Clinical Medicine3.303
· DOI :10.3390/JCM10081694
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with cirrhosis. The risk of HCC recurrence after a complete response among patients treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has not been fully elucidated yet. Aim: To assess the risk of HCC recurrence after DAA therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Methods: A systematic review across PubMed, Scopus and Scholar up to November 2020, including full-text studies that assessed the pattern of HCC recurrence after DAA therapy for HCV. Random-effect meta-analysis and univariable metaregression were applied to obtain pooled estimates for proportions and relative risk (RR) and variables influential for the outcome, respectively. Results: Thirty-one studies with 2957 patients were included. Overall, 30% (CI, 26–34%) of the patients with a history of HCC experienced HCC recurrence after DAA therapy, at mean time intervals ranging from 4 to 21 months. This result increased when going from European studies (23%, CI, 17–28%) to US studies (34%, CI, 30–38%), to Egyptian studies (37%, CI, 27–47%), and to Asian studies (33%, CI, 27–40%). Sixty-eight percent (CI, 45–91%) of recurrent HCCs developed within 6 months of follow-up since DAA treatment, among the eight studies providing stratified data. Among the studies providing head-to-head comparisons, the HCC recurrence risk was significantly lower after DAA therapy than IFN (RR, 0.64; CI, 0.51–0.81), and after DAA therapy than no intervention (RR, 0.68; CI, 0.49–0.94). Conclusions: The recurrence of HCC after DAA is not negligible, being higher soon after the end of treatment and among non-European countries. DAA therapy seems to reduce the risk of HCC recurrence compared to an IFN regimen and no intervention.