Molecular and cellular mechanisms of liver fibrosis and its regression.

Published on Mar 1, 2021in Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology46.802
路 DOI :10.1038/S41575-020-00372-7
Tatiana Kisseleva50
Estimated H-index: 50
(UCSD: University of California, San Diego),
David A. Brenner150
Estimated H-index: 150
(UCSD: University of California, San Diego)
Sources
Abstract
Chronic liver injury leads to liver inflammation and fibrosis, through which activated myofibroblasts in the liver secrete extracellular matrix proteins that generate the fibrous scar. The primary source of these myofibroblasts are the resident hepatic stellate cells. Clinical and experimental liver fibrosis regresses when the causative agent is removed, which is associated with the elimination of these activated myofibroblasts and resorption of the fibrous scar. Understanding the mechanisms of liver fibrosis regression could identify new therapeutic targets to treat liver fibrosis. This Review summarizes studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying the reversibility of liver fibrosis, including apoptosis and the inactivation of hepatic stellate cells, the crosstalk between the liver and the systems that orchestrate the recruitment of bone marrow-derived macrophages (and other inflammatory cells) driving fibrosis resolution, and the interactions between various cell types that lead to the intracellular signalling that induces fibrosis or its regression. We also discuss strategies to target hepatic myofibroblasts (for example, via apoptosis or inactivation) and the myeloid cells that degrade the matrix (for example, via their recruitment to fibrotic liver) to facilitate fibrosis resolution and liver regeneration.
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