Role of exosomes in malignant glioma: microRNAs and proteins in pathogenesis and diagnosis.

Published on Aug 3, 2020in Cell Communication and Signaling5.712
路 DOI :10.1186/S12964-020-00623-9
Amir B. Ghaemmaghami2
Estimated H-index: 2
(U of T: University of Toronto),
Maryam Mahjoubin-Tehran12
Estimated H-index: 12
(MUMS: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)
+ 5 AuthorsMichael R. Hamblin135
Estimated H-index: 135
(UJ: University of Johannesburg)
Sources
Abstract
Malignant gliomas are the most common and deadly type of central nervous system tumors. Despite some advances in treatment, the mean survival time remains only about 1.25 years. Even after surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, gliomas still have a poor prognosis. Exosomes are the most common type of extracellular vesicles with a size range of 30 to 100 nm, and can act as carriers of proteins, RNAs, and other bioactive molecules. Exosomes play a key role in tumorigenesis and resistance to chemotherapy or radiation. Recent evidence has shown that exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) can be detected in the extracellular microenvironment, and can also be transferred from cell to cell via exosome secretion and uptake. Therefore, many recent studies have focused on exosomal miRNAs as important cellular regulators in various physiological and pathological conditions. A variety of exosomal miRNAs have been implicated in the initiation and progression of gliomas, by activating and/or inhibiting different signaling pathways. Exosomal miRNAs could be used as therapeutic agents to modulate different biological processes in gliomas. Exosomal miRNAs derived from mesenchymal stem cells could also be used for glioma treatment. The present review summarizes the exosomal miRNAs that have been implicated in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of gliomas. Moreover, exosomal proteins could also be involved in glioma pathogenesis. Exosomal miRNAs and proteins could also serve as non-invasive biomarkers for prognosis and disease monitoring. Video Abstract.
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References227
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#1Sheng-Ze Deng (NCU: Nanchang University)H-Index: 1
#2Min-Fang Lai (NCU: Nanchang University)H-Index: 1
Last. Jian-Guo Kuang (NCU: Nanchang University)H-Index: 1
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It is well established that human marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) can directly migrate towards tumor microenvironments associated with tumor formation and intracellular communication. Gene regulatory networks in tumors may be targeted by microRNAs (miRNAs), especially those derived in exosomes from hMSCs. However, the potential functional roles of hMSCs in glioma cell growth still remain controversial. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the regulatory mechanisms of hMSC exosomal microRNA-375 ...
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#1Soheila Mohammadi (Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 7
#2Fatemeh Yousefi (TMU: Tarbiat Modares University)H-Index: 5
Last. Hamed Mirzaei (KAUMS: Kashan University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 58
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Exosomes belong to extracellular vehicles that were produced and secreted from most eukaryotic cells and are involved in cell-to-cell communications. They are an effective delivery system for biological compounds such as mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), proteins, lipids, saccharides, and other physiological compounds to target cells. In this way, they could influence on cellular pathways and mediate their physiological behaviors including cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, differentiation, and so on. ...
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#1Mohammad Hossein Pourhanifeh (KAUMS: Kashan University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 20
#2Maryam Mahjoubin-Tehran (MUMS: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 12
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Multiple myeloma (MM), an incurable hematologic malignancy of plasma cells increasing in the bone marrow (BM), has a complex microenvironment made to support proliferation, survival, and drug resistance of tumor cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), short non-coding RNAs regulating genes expression at posttranscriptional level, have been indicated to be functionally deregulated or abnormally expressed in MM cells. Moreover, by means of miRNAs, tumor microenvironment also modulates the function of MM cells....
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#1Zihuang Li (JNU: Jinan University)H-Index: 7
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Abstract Despite development in therapies, the high recurrence and low positivity of biomarkers for diagnosis still result in glioma with high mortality. In this study, we aimed to identify a potential miRNA signature to evaluate the effect of radiotherapy in glioma patients. MicroRNA (miRNA) sequencing was performed on miRNAs isolated from serum exosomes in a cohort of glioma patients before and after radiotherapy. A total of 18 up-regulated differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs and 16 down-regu...
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#1Mingyu Qian (SDU: Shandong University)H-Index: 10
#2Shaobo Wang (SDU: Shandong University)H-Index: 7
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Exosomes are emerging as important elements that participate in intercellular communication and tumor microenvironment modulation, but the exact mechanisms by which tumor exosomes facilitate the generation of the immunosuppressive microenvironment remain unclear. Here we investigated the effects of glioma-derived exosomes (GDEs) on macrophage polarization and glioma progression. We also performed microRNA sequencing analysis of GDEs to identify the microRNA that mediated macrophage polarization....
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#1Haiyang Xu (JLU: Jilin University)H-Index: 3
#2Guifang Zhao (Guangzhou Medical University)H-Index: 4
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a significant role in cancer initiation and metastasis, sometimes by releasing exosomes that mediate cell communication by delivering microRNAs (miRNAs). This study aimed to investigate the effects of exosomal miR-133b derived from MSCs on glioma cell behaviors. Microarray-based analysis identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in glioma. The expression patterns of EZH2 and miR-133b along with interaction between them were clarified in glioma. The e...
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#1Elaheh Mianehsaz (KAUMS: Kashan University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 4
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Degenerative disorders of joints, especially osteoarthritis (OA), result in persistent pain and disability and high costs to society. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of OA have not yet been fully explained. OA is characterized by destruction of cartilage and loss of extracellular matrix (ECM). It is generally agreed that there is an association between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the development of OA. There is increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and 鈥渁 disintegrin a...
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#1Xiao Yue (Xiangnan University)H-Index: 2
#2Fengming Lan (Peking Union Medical College)H-Index: 1
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Abstract Recent evidences suggest that miRNAs can be released to the extracellular microenvironment and mediate cell-cell communication through exosomes. The aim of this study was to identify exo-miR-301a involved in glioblastoma (GBM) radio-resistance and reveal the possible mechanisms. Exo-miR-301a specifically secreted by hypoxic GBM cells could transfer to corresponding normoxia cultured cells and promote radiation resistance. Hypoxic exo-miR-301a directly targeted TCEAL7 genes which were id...
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OBJECTIVE: The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely studied for their anti-tumor property, due to the characteristic of homing towards tumor sites and immunosuppression. Nevertheless, the underlying molecular mechanisms that link MSCs to the targeted tumor cells, such as glioma, are not clear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we examined the inhibitory properties and new molecular mechanisms of the human umbilical cord (hUC-MSCs) derived exosomes on the human glioma U87 cells using a co-cu...
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#1Chao Ma (Nantong University)H-Index: 4
#2Han Chen (Nantong University)H-Index: 2
Last. Mei Liu (Nantong University)H-Index: 16
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Abstract Exosomes are a type of extracellular vesicles derived from cells and mediators of intercellular communication. Different cell types have their own unique exosomes for exchanging information. We previously found that SASH1, a tumor suppressor, was lowly expressed or absent in glioma tissues and glioma C6 cells, but the structure and function of the corresponding exosomes had been unclear. Hence, we aimed to investigate whether exosomes generated from normal glial cells and glioma cells f...
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A hypoxic microenvironment is a common feature of skin wounds. Our previous study demonstrated that three-dimensional coculture of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ucMSCs) and endothelial cells facilitates cell communication and host integration in skin tissue engineering. Here, we aimed to identify the mechanism by which ucMSCs affect endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions after skin injury. We demonstrate that hypoxia enhances the exosome-mediated paracrine function of ucMSCs...
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#1Anil Kr. TiwariH-Index: 11
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Exosomes are a subset of extracellular vehicles (EVs) that are secreted by most cell types. They are nano size 30-150 nm, membrane enclosed bodies that originates by the process of endocytosis and mainly comprises of DNA, RNA, protein, and lipids. Exosomes not only acts as a cell to cellular communication and signaling mediators but also has the potential to act as a biomarker for clinical application as well as can as a promising carrier as a drug delivery machinery. Unfortunately, purification...
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This study aims to investigate the biological role of 6-methyladenine (m6A) methylation in inducing the carcinogenesis of glioma and its proliferation. Relative levels of ALKBH5 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in glioma tissues and cell lines were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches were used to investigate the role of ALKBH5 in mediating proliferation and energy metabolism of gli...
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#2Seyyed Hossein Khatami (Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services)H-Index: 4
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Glioma, as one of the most severe human malignancies, is defined as the Central Nervous System's (CNS) tumors. Glioblastoma (GBM) in this regard, is the most malignant type of gliomas. There are multiple therapeutic strategies to cure GBM, for which chemotherapy is often the first-line treatment. Still, various cellular processes, such as uncontrolled proliferation, invasion and metastasis, may disturb the treatment efficacy. Drug resistance is another process in this way, which can also cause u...
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Glioblastoma (GB) is the most aggressive form of brain cancer in adults, characterized by poor survival rates and lack of effective therapies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally through specific pairing with target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Extracellular vesicles (EVs), a heterogeneous group of cell-derived vesicles, transport miRNAs, mRNAs and intracellular proteins, and have been shown to promote horizontal malignancy into adjacent ...
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Introduction null Myocardial damage is a mostly incurable complication of multiple myeloma (MM) that seriously affects the treatment outcome and quality of life of patients. Exosomal circular RNAs (exo-circRNAs) play an important role in tumor occurrence and development and are considered key factors in MM pathogenesis. However, the role and mechanism of action of exo-circRNAs in MM-related myocardial damage are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate correlations between exo-circRNAs and...
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#2Xiaoyuan Tian (Dalian Medical University)H-Index: 1
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Background: Some studies have reported results from the use of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) to treat osteoarthritis (OA). Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of MSC-EVs as a treatment for OA. Data sources: Databases were searched using the terms 'mesenchymal stem cells', 'osteoarthritis' and 'extracellular vesicles.' Study eligibility criteria: Studies performed in animal models utilizing MSC-EVs to treat OA that described the macroscopic evaluation or histologi...
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#1Liang Liu (Soochow University (Suzhou))H-Index: 4
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Many studies have reported that circular RNAs play a vital role in the malignant progression of human cancers. However, the role and underlying mechanism of circRNAs in the development of gliomas have not been fully clarified. In this study, we found that circ_0001367 was downregulated in glioma tissues and showed a close correlation with glioma patient survival. Functional assays demonstrated that upregulation of circ_0001367 could suppress the proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma ce...
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#3Yangyang Xie (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 1
Abstract Objective The role of exosomes in human cancers has been identified, while the effect of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)-derived exosomes (CAF-exos) transmitting microRNAs (miRNAs) on colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unknown. We aim to explore the impact of CAF-derived exosomal miR-135b-5p on CRC progression by targeting thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Methods CRC tissues were collected to obtain CAF-exos, which were used to co-culture with LoVo and HT29 cells. The ...
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