Toward Individualized Approaches to Partial Nephrectomy: Assessing the Correlation Between Ischemia Time and Patient Health Status (RECORD2 Project).
Abstract Background Ischemia time during partial nephrectomy (PN) is among the greatest determinants of acute kidney injury (AKI). Whether this association is affected by the preoperative risk of AKI has never been investigated. Objective To assess the effect of the interaction between the preoperative risk of AKI and ischemia time on the probability of AKI during PN. Design, setting, and participants Data of 944 patients treated with on-clamp PN for cT1 renal tumors were extracted from the Registry of Conservative and Radical Surgery for Cortical Renal Tumor Disease (RECORD2) database, a prospective multicenter project. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis We estimated the preoperative risk of AKI (defined according to the risk/injury/failure/loss/end-stage [RIFLE] criteria) according to age, baseline renal function, clinical stage, preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical (PADUA) score, and surgical approach. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis identified patients at “high” and “low” risk of AKI. Finally, we plotted the probability of AKI over ischemia time stratified by the preoperative risk of AKI. Results and limitations Overall, 235 (25%) patients experienced AKI after surgery. At multivariable analysis, older patients, those with more complex tumors, those with higher baseline function, and those treated with open surgery had an increased risk of AKI (all p ≤ 0.011). According to the first split at CART analysis, patients were categorized as those with “high” and “low” risk of AKI having a probability of >40% or 20 min of ischemia was 13% versus 28% (absolute risk increase 15%). The risk of AKI for high-risk patients who had 20 min of ischemia was 31% versus 77%. This corresponds to an absolute risk increase of 45%. Limitations include retrospective data analyses and lack of surgeons’ prior experience. Conclusions Ischemia time during PN has different implications for patients with different health status. Clamp time seems less clinically relevant for patients in good conditions who may endure prolonged ischemia with a mild increase in the risk of AKI, whereas frail patients seem to be more vulnerable to ischemic damage even for short clamp time. For individualized intra- and postoperative management, duration of ischemia needs to be questioned in the context of the individual health status. Patient summary Functional sequelae related to ischemia time during partial nephrectomy depend on baseline health status. The correlation between the duration of ischemia and baseline health status should be taken into account toward individualized intra- and postoperative management.