Bioactive PLGA/tricalcium phosphate scaffolds incorporating phytomolecule icaritin developed for calvarial defect repair in rat model.
Published on Jun 7, 2020in Journal of orthopaedic translation3.986
· DOI :10.1016/J.JOT.2020.05.008
Abstract Background/objectives For treatment of large bone defects challenging in orthopaedic clinics, bone graft substitutes are commonly used for the majority of surgeons. It would be proposed in the current study that our bioactive scaffolds could additionally serve as a local delivery system for therapeutic small molecule agents capable of providing support to enhance biological bone repair. Methods In this study, composite scaffolds made of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) named by P/T was fabricated by a low-temperature rapid prototyping technique. For optimizing the scaffolds, the phytomolecule icaritin (ICT) was incorporated into P/T scaffolds called P/T/ICT. The osteogenic efficacies of the two groups of scaffolds were compared in a successfully established calvarial defect model in rats. Bone regeneration was evaluated by X-ray, micro-computerised tomography (micro-CT), and histology at weeks 4 and/or 8 post-implantation. In vitro induction of osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis was established for identification of differentiation potentials evoked by icaritin in primary cultured precursor cells. Results The results of radiographies and decalcified histology demonstrated more area and volume fractions of newly formed bone within bone defect sites implanted with P/T/ICT scaffold than that with P/T scaffold. Undecalcified histological results presented more osteoid and mineralized bone tissues, and also more active bone remodeling in P/T/ICT group than that in P/T group. The results of histological staining in osteoclast-like cells and newly formed vessels indicated favorable biocompatibility, rapid bioresorption and more new vessel growth in P/T/ICT scaffolds in contrast to P/T scaffolds. Based on in vitro induction, the results presented that icaritin could significantly facilitate osteogenic differentiation, while suppressed adipogenic differentiation. Meanwhile, icaritin demonstrated remarkable inhibition of osteoclastogenic differentiation. Conclusion The finding that P/T/ICT composite scaffold can enhance bone regeneration in calvarial bone defects through facilitating effective bone formation and restraining excessive bone resorption. The translational potential of this article The osteogenic bioactivity of icaritin facilitated PLGA/TCP/icartin composite scaffold to exert significant bone regeneration in calvarial defects in rat model. It might form an optimized foundation for potential clinical validation in bone defects application.