Amyloid-Rich Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: a Potential Diagnostic Pitfall in Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (EUS-FNAC).

Published on May 12, 2020in Endocrine Pathology3.168
· DOI :10.1007/S12022-020-09625-2
Alessandro Gambella4
Estimated H-index: 4
Enrico Costantino Falco1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 6 AuthorsMauro Papotti98
Estimated H-index: 98
(UNITO: University of Turin)
: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are rare neoplasms that include even rarer variants that may pose different diagnostic problems, especially in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We describe the diagnostic clues of the amyloid-rich variant of PanNETs in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC). Three cases of PanNETs with an amyloid-rich stromal component were retrieved and retrospectively reviewed. For every case, the pancreatic lesion was investigated by a EUS-FNAC procedure. The final diagnosis was supported by immunocytochemistry and Congo red staining. All cases had similar EUS-FNAC features: neoplastic cells were entrapped in an eosinophilic, homogeneous dense and amorphous matrix. The neuroendocrine nature was confirmed by immunoexpression of synaptophysin and chromogranin A, while the amorphous stroma was characterized as amyloid based on positive Congo red staining. Regarding the hormonal profile, no insulin or proinsulin reactivity was observed, but all cases were diffusely positive for amylin. The diagnosis of uncommon variants of PanNETs, such as the amyloid-rich, is challenging especially in EUS-FNAC procedures because of a unique and misleading morphology, potentially mimicking fibrotic conditions and amyloid deposition within systemic amyloidosis. In cytology specimens, the presence of amorphous material requires amyloid deposition to be considered in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms with neuroendocrine phenotype.
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