Machine learning and big data: Implications for disease modeling and therapeutic discovery in psychiatry.
Published on Aug 1, 2019in Artificial Intelligence in Medicine5.326
· DOI :10.1016/J.ARTMED.2019.101704
Abstract Introduction Machine learning capability holds promise to inform disease models, the discovery and development of novel disease modifying therapeutics and prevention strategies in psychiatry. Herein, we provide an introduction on how machine learning/Artificial Intelligence (AI) may instantiate such capabilities, as well as provide rationale for its application to psychiatry in both research and clinical ecosystems. Methods Databases PubMed and PsycINFO were searched from 1966 to June 2016 for keywords:Big Data, Machine Learning, Precision Medicine, Artificial Intelligence, Mental Health, Mental Disease, Psychiatry, Data Mining, RDoC, and Research Domain Criteria. Articles selected for review were those that were determined to be aligned with the objective of this particular paper. Results Results indicate that AI is a viable option to build useful predictors of outcome while offering objective and comparable accuracy metrics, a unique opportunity, particularly in mental health research. The approach has also consistently brought notable insight into disease models through processing the vast amount of already available multi-domain, semi-structured medical data. The opportunity for AI in psychiatry, in addition to disease-model refinement, is in characterizing those at risk, and it is likely also relevant to personalizing and discovering therapeutics. Conclusions Machine learning currently provides an opportunity to parse disease models in complex, multi-factorial disease states (e.g. mental disorders) and could possibly inform treatment selection with existing therapies and provide bases for domain-based therapeutic discovery.