Characteristics and Mechanism of Styrene Cationic Polymerization in Aqueous Media Initiated by Cumyl Alcohol/B(C6F5)3

Published on Feb 1, 2019in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics2.335
· DOI :10.1002/MACP.201800419
Jinghan Zhang3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Huada: Beijing University of Chemical Technology),
Yibo Wu12
Estimated H-index: 12
(BIPT: Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology)
+ 8 AuthorsWenli Guo12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Huada: Beijing University of Chemical Technology)
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Abstract
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20193.43Polymers
8 Authors (Jinghan Zhang, ..., Wenli Guo)
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References45
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: Cationic polymerizations have long been industrialized; however, stimulus-regulated cationic polymerization remains to be developed. An electrochemically controlled living cationic polymerization is presented for the first time. In the presence of external potential and organic-based electrocatalyst, a series of monomers can be polymerized under a cationic chain-transfer mechanism. The resulting polymers exhibit well-defined molecular mass, narrow dispersity, and good chain-end fidelity. By co...
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The ability to combine two polymerization mechanisms in a one-pot setup and switch the monomer selectivity via an external stimulus provides an excellent opportunity to control polymer sequence and structure. We report a strategy that enables monomer incorporation to be determined via the selection of the wavelength of light through selective activation of either cationic or radical processes. This method enables the synthesis of varying polymeric structures under identical solution conditions b...
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A naturally occurring vinylphenolic compound, 4-vinylguaiacol (4VG: 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene), which is derived from naturally occurring ferulic acid via decarboxylation, was used for the synthesis of well-defined bio-based poly(vinylguaiacol) and poly(vinylcatechol) with phenolic functions. Through one-step chemical conversions of 4VG, a series of 4VG derivatives protected with acetyl (Ac4VG), tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS4VG), or triethylsilyl (TBDMS4VG) groups as well as bis(triethylsilyl)...
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The process of cationic polymerization of p-methoxystyrene in emulsion using recently discovered water-dispersible Lewis acid surfactant complexes (LASCs) has been investigated in detail. These latter are prepared from specific branched sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and different metal salts (namely ytterbium, scandium, and indium). First, the reaction rate increases while changing the nature of Yb salt in the range Yb(OTf)3 > YbBr3 > YbCl3 > Yb(NO3)3. The nature of metal was also shown to infl...
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Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (DBSNa) surfactants, with a polydisperse and hyperbranched structure, combined with different rare earth metal salts generate highly water-dispersible Lewis acid surfactant combined catalysts (LASCs). This platform of new complexes promotes fast, efficient cationic polymerization of industrially relevant monomers in direct emulsion at moderate temperature. The process described here does not require high shearing, long polymerization time, or large catalyst conte...
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Cationic polymerization of isobutyl vinyl ether (IBVE) in an ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([omim][BF4]) was thoroughly examined at 0 °C. A variety of coinitiators were used in conjunction with the IBVE-HCl adduct acting as a cationogen. Compared with polymerization in organic solvents, the cationic polymerization of IBVE in [omim][BF4] proceeded in a milder exothermic manner, yielding polymers with higher molecular weight, and giving a higher monomer conversion. Alt...
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Summary The cationic polymerization of isobutylene using AlCl3 × OBu2 and AlCl3 × OiPr2 as co-initiators in two non-polar solvents (toluene and n-hexane) at different temperatures and monomer concentrations has been investigated. In toluene, highly reactive polyisobutylene (HR PIB) with desired low molecular weight (Mn = 1,500–2,500 g mol−1) and high exo-olefin content (85–90%) were synthesized at high monomer concentration ([M] = 5.2–7.8 M) and high reaction temperature (0 °C–20 °C) with both o...
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Sequential anionic polymerizations of styrene and methyl methacrylate and 2-vinylpyridine in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were conducted in a plug flow reactor system with a static mixer. Polymers [polystyrene (PS), M n : 120×103 g·mol−1, M w /M n : 1.08), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, M n : 28×103 g·mol−1, M w /M n : 1.09), poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP, M n : 53×103 g·mol−1, M w /M n : 1.08), and PS-b-PMMA (M n : 117×103 g·mol−1, M w /M n : 1.12)] with a precisely controlled high molecular weight we...
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The polymerization of vinyl monomers generally requires the selection of an appropriate single intermediate, whereas in copolymerization, the selection of the comonomer is limited by the intermediate. Herein, we propose interconvertible dual active species that can connect comonomers through different mechanisms to produce specific comonomer sequences in a single polymer chain. More specifically, two different stimuli, that is, a radical initiator and a Lewis acid, are used to activate the commo...
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The RAlCl2 × OiPr2-co-initiated (R = iBu or Et) cationic polymerization of isobutylene in the presence of externally added water (0.016–0.1 mM) in nonpolar n-hexane at 10 °C and high monomer concentration ([IB] = 5.8 M) has been investigated. It was shown that the sequence of H2O introduction into the system had the crucial effect on the polymerization rate, saturated monomer conversion, and, to a lesser extent, the content of exo-olefin end groups. Particularly, the highest polymerization rate ...
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With very fast polymerization in mild reaction conditions and unique characteristic of double bonds in its synthesized polymer skeleton for further modification and functionalization, ring opening ...
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Cationic polymerization is a useful polymerization technique in the production of a number of commercial polymers but is notoriously challenging to perform due to side-reactions with atmospheric water. Despite this, with the development of new water tolerant Lewis acid surfactant complexes, it has been reported that cationic polymerization of vinylic monomers can be readily conducted in aqueous dispersed media achieving molecular weights in excess of 100 kg mol−1. Here, evidence is provided that...
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Aqueous cationic polymerizations of vinyl ethers (isobutyl vinyl ether (IBVE), 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether (CEVE), and n-butyl vinyl ether (n-BVE)) were performed for the first time by a CumOH/B(C6F5)3/Et2O initiating system in an air atmosphere. The polymerization proceeded in a reproducible manner through the careful design of experimental conditions (adding initiator, co-solvents, and surfactant or decreasing the reaction temperature), and the polymerization characteristics were systematically ...
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