Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in clade C HIV: within-group association with neurocognitive function

Published on Oct 2, 2017in Journal of NeuroVirology2.354
· DOI :10.1007/S13365-017-0581-5
Lindie du Plessis3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UCT: University of Cape Town),
Robert H. Paul68
Estimated H-index: 68
(MU: University of Missouri)
+ 4 AuthorsJohn A. Joska32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UCT: University of Cape Town)
Neuroimaging abnormalities are common in chronically infected HIV-positive individuals. The majority of studies have focused on structural or functional brain outcomes in samples infected with clade B HIV. While preliminary work reveals a similar structural imaging phenotype in patients infected with clade C HIV, no study has examined functional connectivity (FC) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in clade C HIV. In particular, we were interested to explore HIV-only effects on neurocognitive function using associations with rs-fMRI. In the present study, 56 treatment-naive, clade C HIV-infected participants (age 32.27 ± 5.53 years, education 10.02 ± 1.72 years, 46 female) underwent rs-fMRI and cognitive testing. Individual resting-state networks were correlated with global deficit scores (GDS) in order to explore associations between them within an HIV-positive sample. Results revealed ten regions in six resting-state networks where FC inversely correlated with GDS scores (worse performance). The networks affected included three independent attention networks: the default mode network (DMN), sensorimotor network, and basal ganglia. Connectivity in these regions did not correlate with plasma viral load or CD4 cell count. The design of this study is unique and has not been previously reported in clade B. The abnormalities related to neurocognitive performance reported in this study of clade C may reflect late disease stage and/or unique host/viral dynamics. Longitudinal studies will help to clarify the clinical significance of resting-state alterations in clade C HIV.
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