The influence of through-thickness reinforcement geometry and pattern on delamination of fiber-reinforced composites: Part I Experimental results

Published on Jan 15, 2018in Composite Structures5.407
· DOI :10.1016/J.COMPSTRUCT.2017.09.091
G. Pappas9
Estimated H-index: 9
(EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne),
Simon Joncas10
Estimated H-index: 10
(École de technologie supérieure)
+ 1 AuthorsJohn Botsis38
Estimated H-index: 38
(EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract This experimental study reports effect of tuft geometry i.e., standard tufts and loops milled-down, and tufting pattern on Mode I interlaminar fracture in a GFRP. Standard tufting geometry is responsible for an increase in fracture resistance by 3.5–6 times than the neat composite, depending on the areal pattern. Based on 5 mm squared tufting pattern on DCB specimens with a full-length release film at laminate mid-plane and non-tufted ones, the individual contribution to fracture of tufts and ply delamination are isolated. For this pattern their superposition matches well the total fracture resistance of the normal tufted composite. Extrapolation of this simple superposition to other patterns underestimates the experimental results. Experiments also show that delamination mechanisms in tufted composites are significantly affected by tuft geometry, with a 65% increased resistance for the loop-less against the standard tufted specimens. This is attributed to the large amount of energy required for tuft pull-out compared to tuft rupture during delamination, which also triggers more extended ply delamination.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
4 Authors (G. Pappas, ..., John Botsis)
References27
Newest
#1G. Pappas (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 9
#2Simon Joncas (École de technologie supérieure)H-Index: 10
Last. John Botsis (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 38
view all 4 authors...
Abstract This article reports modeling techniques and results based on experimental Mode I characterization of a layered woven GFRP material with tufting reinforcement. Standard tuft and loop-less geometries are investigated on three different areal patterns to evaluate their effects on fracture resistance. The experiments reveal that tow/ply and tuft bridging phenomena are present during delamination. The numerical modeling comprises cohesive elements for tow/ply bridging and 1D connector eleme...
Source
#1G. Pappas (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 9
#2Luis P. Canal (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 11
Last. John Botsis (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 38
view all 3 authors...
Abstract A detailed experimental-numerical study of large scale bridging during intralaminar fracture of AS4/PPS uniaxial thermoplastic composite is reported. Identification of bridging tractions is carried out using: (a) An inverse identification method based on quasi-distributed strain data from fiber Bragg gratings, FE modeling and optimization; both small and large displacements are considered in the simulations resulting in negligible differences between the bridging tractions and of about ...
Source
#1C. OsmianiH-Index: 1
#2Galal F A Mohamed (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 6
Last. Ivana K. Partridge (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 43
view all 5 authors...
Abstract A constitutive model for tufts bridging a mode I delamination is presented. The tuft is modelled as a rod, laterally supported by an elastic medium and clamped at both ends. A fracture mechanics approach is introduced to describe the progressive debonding of the tuft from the embedding laminate. The debonding model requires the identification of stiffness, strength and toughness properties, which depend both on the laminate/tuft architecture and the constituent materials. Such identific...
Source
#1Behzad Najafloo (AUT: Amirkabir University of Technology)H-Index: 1
Last. Masoud Latifi (AUT: Amirkabir University of Technology)H-Index: 29
view all 3 authors...
An experimental investigation was performed to study the mechanical performance of 3D carbon/phenolic composites subjected to bending and impact forces. T300-3 k dry preforms were tufted using carbon threads of 396, 800, and 1600 tex. Also, the tufting densities varied from sparse density (tufted 16 × 16: areal density = 0.37 cm−2) to moderate density (tufted 11 × 11: areal density = 0.82 cm-2) and high density (tufted 5.5 × 5.5: areal density = 3.30 cm−2). The tufted preforms were then infiltra...
Source
#1G. Pappas (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 9
#2John Botsis (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 38
Abstract Fracture of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) is dominated by large scale fiber bridging which acts as a very important toughening mechanism. The objective of this paper is to investigate the intralaminar Mode I fracture in a unidirectional CFRP composite in double cantilever beam specimens with thickness H = 6, 10 and 14 mm with a symmetric intralaminar precrack introduced by a thin diamond wire saw. Optical fibers with 10 multiplexed Bragg grating sensors are glued onto the upp...
Source
#1Giuseppe Dell'AnnoH-Index: 8
#2J.W.G. Treiber (Cranfield University)H-Index: 2
Last. Ivana K. Partridge (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 43
view all 3 authors...
The paper aims at providing practical guidelines for the manufacture of composite parts reinforced by tufting. The need for through-thickness reinforcement of high performance carbon fibre composite structures is reviewed and various options are presented. The tufting process is described in detail and relevant aspects of the technology are analysed such as: equipment configuration and setup, latest advances in tooling, thread selection, preform supporting systems and choice of ancillary materia...
Source
#1Bing Zhang (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 10
#2Giuliano Allegri (Imperial College London)H-Index: 21
Last. Stephen R. Hallett (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 53
view all 4 authors...
This paper presents a three-dimensional micro-mechanical finite element (FE) modelling strategy for predicting the mixed-mode response of single Z-pins inserted in a composite laminate. The modelling approach is based upon a versatile ply-level mesh, which takes into account the significant micro- mechanical features of Z-pinned laminates. The effect of post-cure cool down is also considered in the approach. The Z-pin/laminate interface is modelled by cohesive elements and frictional contact. Th...
Source
#1E. Farmand-Ashtiani (École Polytechnique)H-Index: 5
#2Joël Cugnoni (École Polytechnique)H-Index: 26
Last. John Botsis (École Polytechnique)H-Index: 38
view all 3 authors...
Large scale bridging is an important toughening mechanism in composite laminates that depends on the specimen geometry as well as the constituent materials. In this work, an iterative approach is applied to identify the effect of specimen thickness on traction-separation behavior in the bridging zone. Double cantilever beam specimens (DCB) with embedded arrays of wavelength-multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are subjected to monotonic mode I fracture loading. As processed specimens wi...
Source
#1Behzad D. Manshadi (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 8
#2Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 28
Last. John Botsis (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 38
view all 3 authors...
Bridging by intact fibers is an important toughening mechanism in composite materials. However, a direct experimental evaluation of its contribution is difficult to achieve and in the case of large scale bridging the thickness, h, may have an important influence on the energy release rate (ERR). In this work a semi-experimental method is adopted to quantify the effects of thickness to fracture of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) double cantilever beam specimens in mode I frac...
Source
#2Alexandros A. Skordos (Cranfield University)H-Index: 21
Last. Michael May (Cranfield University)H-Index: 17
view all 4 authors...
Abstract This research aims at the high speed Mode I delamination characterisation of carbon Non Crimp Fabric composites (NCF) with and without through the thickness reinforcement. The dynamic delamination response under Mode I is investigated using visual and force measurements as well as numerical analysis to minimize errors due to the dynamics of this test. For loading speed larger than 3 m/s the double cantilever beam (DCB) is subjected to mixed Mode loading (Mode I/II). This result is inher...
Source
Cited By11
Newest
#1Madiha Rashid (University of Orléans)
#2Jean-Luc Hanus (University of Orléans)H-Index: 7
Last. Nicolas Gascoin (University of Orléans)H-Index: 20
view all 6 authors...
Traditional laminated composites have fibres oriented only in the in-plane of the laminate due to their manufacturing process, and are therefore very susceptible to transverse cracking and delamination from out-of-plane actions. Delamination can considerably reduce the load bearing capacity of a structure hence several reinforcement solutions, based on the principle to add out-of-plane reinforcement to the 2D fabric, have been explored to enhance the delamination resistance. However, the usual t...
Source
#1Lihua Yuan (Qingdao University)
#2Sen Liang (Qingdao University)
Last. Shengyu Yan (Qingdao University)
view all 3 authors...
A representative volume element method and a novel mesomechanical-based polyline model are proposed to describe the misalignment of in-plane fibers induced by the insertion of stitch thread. A multi-scale mathematical model of in-plane elastic parameters for stitched composite laminate is established with ply-angle and stitch parameters as well as material parameters taken into account. Based on the fabrication of specimens and the verification of experimental platform, the superposition influen...
Source
#1Jin Huang (University of Lyon)H-Index: 5
#2Philippe Boisse (University of Lyon)H-Index: 53
Last. Nahiene Hamila (CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)H-Index: 21
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Tufting of preforms increases the resistance of the laminated composites to delamination. Draping of the preforms is clearly modified by the presence of tufting threads. A simulation approach for the forming of tufted textile reinforcement stacks is proposed. It determines the state of the tufted preforms after forming and in particular the possible wrinkles. The layers of textile reinforcements are modeled by stress resultant shells. Tufting threads are modeled by rod chains that can s...
Source
#1Francesco Ciampa (University of Surrey)H-Index: 21
#2Raj B. Ladani (RMIT: RMIT University)H-Index: 15
Last. Adrian P. Mouritz (RMIT: RMIT University)H-Index: 71
view all 10 authors...
Abstract A new type of fibre reinforced polymer composite is presented that uniquely combines high delamination resistance with crack closure properties via the use of tufted shape memory alloy (SMA) filaments. A carbon-epoxy laminate was tufted in the through-thickness direction using thin SMA filaments of Ni-Ti alloy (nitinol). The SMA tufts increase the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of the laminate by forming a large-scale bridging process zone along the delamination crack. Following...
Source
#1Xiaole Li (KAUST: King Abdullah University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 7
#2Shuai Lu (KAUST: King Abdullah University of Science and Technology)
Last. Gilles Lubineau (KAUST: King Abdullah University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 42
view all 3 authors...
Abstract null null Adhesive bonding community shows a continued interest in using bridging mechanisms to toughen the interface of secondary bonded joints, especially in the case of laminated composites. Due to snap-back instability that occurs during fracture, confusions may exist when identifying the toughening effect experimentally. The true toughening effect may be overestimated by lumping all energy contributions (kinetic energy included) in an overall effective toughness. Here, fundamentals...
Source
#5Sandeep Kumar (IISc: Indian Institute of Science)H-Index: 108
Abstract Herein, interlaminar crack initiation and its growth in tufted carbon/epoxy composite under Mode-I loading are investigated for different thread materials and tuft densities. Two configurations of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) test specimens are fabricated – one with 2 rows of tuft (hereafter referred to as lower tuft density) and another with 3 rows of tuft (will be referred to as higher tuft density). The crack front is arrested and delamination growth is delayed by tufting, which incr...
Source
#1Amna Siddique (Donghua University)H-Index: 6
#2Sharjeel Abid (National Textile University)H-Index: 11
Last. Baozhong Sun (Donghua University)H-Index: 32
view all 8 authors...
Composite materials are known for their high stiffness and strength at lower weight as compared to conventional structural materials. Recently, there has been a growing interest in finding the new ...
Source
#1Hongyong Jiang (Hunan University)H-Index: 15
#2Yiru Ren (Hunan University)H-Index: 21
Last. Jianqiang Zheng (Comac)H-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
A type of gradient-degraded material-induced trigger has a greater potential to induce a progressive crushing mode in a controlled manner to reduce the initial crushing load and increase the specif...
Source
#1Chan Hui (university of lille)H-Index: 1
#2Peng Wang (university of lille)H-Index: 24
Last. Xavier Legrand (university of lille)H-Index: 13
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Tufting is an ongoing technique to manufacture the 3-dimensional (3D) textile reinforcement for composites. The inserted tufting threads provide a good mechanical performance through-the-thickness of the final composite parts. However, the degradation of inserted tufting thread can be experienced during the tufting process. This degradation brings out the negative influence on the mechanical performance of the reinforced tufting thread and of the composite, which is not yet studied and ...
Source
#1Imen Gnaba (ENSAIT)H-Index: 2
#2Xavier Legrand (ENSAIT)H-Index: 13
Last. Damien Soulat (ENSAIT)H-Index: 22
view all 4 authors...
Three-dimensional preforms have been developed in order to remedy and minimize the out-of-plane damage caused by 2D structures. Several researches have been done on more complex structures which ha...
Source
This website uses cookies.
We use cookies to improve your online experience. By continuing to use our website we assume you agree to the placement of these cookies.
To learn more, you can find in our Privacy Policy.