Autoimmune Neutropenia Updates: Etiology, Pathology, and Treatment.

Published on Apr 1, 2017in Southern Medical Journal0.954
· DOI :10.14423/SMJ.0000000000000637
Wais Afzal3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Mohamad Bagher Owlia1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsKam A. Newman9
Estimated H-index: 9
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Abstract
Abstract Autoimmune neutropenia (AIN) is defined as a neutrophil count <1.5 × 10(9)/L caused by increased peripheral destruction of neutrophils from an underlying autoimmune mechanism in which autoantibodies are directed against a patient's own neutrophils. AIN has a multifactorial etiology ranging from an idiopathic primary phenomenon to secondary disorders associated with established autoimmune diseases. Primary AIN is more prevalent in children, generally self-limited, and typically manifests as a sole hematologic abnormality. Secondary AIN is more common in adults and often occurs in the setting of concurrent autoimmune diseases, infections, malignancies, or medications. It may be seen posttransplantation or occasionally with neurological diseases. Various laboratory modalities are used to detect anti-neutrophil antibodies. Although biologic agents such as rituximab and alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) have been used in the management of AIN, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor remains the first-line therapy. In this article we provide a review of the pathogenesis of AIN, its clinical presentation, and the current treatment options.
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#1Priyanka M. Chaudhari (Saurashtra University)
#2Deepa P. Budh (Saurashtra University)H-Index: 1
Neutropenia is defined as a number of neutrophils, a type of granulated white blood cell, less than 1500/microliter, in the body. It is multifactorial in origin as either by decreased production, sequestration from endothelium and tissues, and increased peripheral destruction. Autoimmune neutropenia (AIN) is described as a reduced number of neutrophils resulting from increased peripheral destruction by antineutrophil antibodies from autoimmune disorders. These autoantibodies are directed against...
#1John L. Frater (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 16
Neutropenia is a common laboratory finding in adults and children. Its underlying causes are extremely heterogeneous and include benign conditions, autoimmune disorders, infections, and malignancies. The clinical laboratory plays a central role in the diagnosis of these disorders, including data derived from hematology, microbiology, molecular biology/cytogenetics, and clinical chemistry. The purpose of this review is to (a) highlight the clinical, hematologic, and molecular genetic features of ...
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#1Athina I. Amanatidou (UoA: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)H-Index: 3
#2Katerina C. Nastou (UoA: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)H-Index: 6
Last. Vassiliki A. Iconomidou (UoA: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)H-Index: 22
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Abstract Blood-cell targeting Autoimmune Diseases (BLADs) are complex diseases that affect blood cell formation or prevent blood cell production. Since these clinical conditions are gathering growing attention, experimental approaches are being used to investigate the mechanisms behind their pathogenesis and to identify proteins associated with them. However, computational approaches have not been utilized extensively in the study of BLADs. This study aims to investigate the interaction network ...
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#1Athina I. Amanatidou (UoA: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)H-Index: 3
#2Katerina C. Nastou (UoA: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)H-Index: 6
Last. Vassiliki A. Iconomidou (UoA: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)H-Index: 22
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Blood-cell targeting Autoimmune Diseases (BLADs) are complex diseases that affect blood cell formation or prevent blood cell production. Since these clinical conditions are gathering growing attention, experimental approaches are being used to investigate the mechanisms behind their pathogenesis and to identify proteins associated with them. However, computational approaches have not been utilized extensively in the study of BLADs. This study aims to investigate the interaction network ...
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#1Luani Barge (Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital)
#2Gail Pahn (Australian Red Cross Blood Service)
Last. Nicholas Weber (UQ: University of Queensland)
view all 3 authors...
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen which may cause haematological manifestations including haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopaenia. Severe neutropaenia is rare with very few cases reported in the literature. An 85-year-old man was transferred to our facility with agranulocytosis in the context of an infective exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with positive serological testing for M. pneumoniae. No alternative infective, autoimmune or lymphoproliferative c...
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#1Alicia K. Chang (BCM: Baylor College of Medicine)
An evaluation into the underlying cause of neutropenia is important, as this may predict clinical severity and guide anticipatory guidance for families. A thorough medical history and physical examination can often narrow the differential in a child with neutropenia, and laboratory testing is typically reserved for those with a more severe or atypical presentation. Neutrophil autoantibodies remain difficult to detect with current methods and require a combination of agglutination and immunofluor...
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#1Ceren CiraciH-Index: 9
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