Disloyalty aversion: Greater reluctance to bet against close others than the self

Published on May 1, 2017in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
· DOI :10.1016/J.OBHDP.2017.02.001
Simone Tang4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Duke University),
Carey K. Morewedge27
Estimated H-index: 27
(BU: Boston University)
+ 1 AuthorsJill G. Klein23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of Melbourne)
Sources
Abstract
We examine the mechanisms by which loyalty can induce risk seeking. In seven studies, participants exhibited disloyalty aversion—they were more reluctant to bet on the failure of a close other than on their own failure. In contrast, participants were just as willing to bet on the failure of strangers as on their own failure. This effect persisted when bets were made in private, payouts were larger for betting on failure than success (Studies 1–4, 6), and failure was most likely (Studies 2–6). We propose that disloyalty aversion occurs because the negative identity signal to the self that hedging creates can outweigh the rewards conferred by hedging. Indeed, disloyalty aversion was moderated by factors affecting the strength of this self-signal and the payout of the hedge, including the closeness of the other person, bettors’ trait loyalty, and payout magnitude (Studies 3–5). Disloyalty aversion strongly influences social preferences involving risk.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
1 Citations
References60
Newest
#1Carey K. MorewedgeH-Index: 27
#2Simone TangH-Index: 4
Last. Richard P. LarrickH-Index: 37
view all 3 authors...
We examined whether people reduce the impact of negative outcomes through emotional hedging—betting against the occurrence of desired outcomes. We found substantial reluctance to bet against the success of preferred U.S. presidential candidates and Major League Baseball, National Football League, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball, and NCAA hockey teams. This reluctance was not attributable to optimism or a general aversion to hedging. Reluctance to hedge desired outcomes...
12 CitationsSource
#1Eric J. Hamerman (Tulane University)H-Index: 4
#2Carey K. Morewedge (BU: Boston University)H-Index: 27
People often resort to superstitious behavior to facilitate goal achievement. We examined whether the specific type of achievement goal pursued influences the propensity to engage in superstitious behavior. Across six studies, we found that performance goals were more likely than learning goals to elicit superstitious behavior. Participants were more likely to engage in superstitious behavior at high than at low levels of chronic performance orientation, but superstitious behavior was not influe...
13 CitationsSource
#1Isaac H. Smith (UofU: University of Utah)H-Index: 7
#2Karl Aquino (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 60
Last. Jesse Graham (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 34
view all 4 authors...
Throughout history, principles such as obedience, loyalty, and purity have been instrumental in binding people together and helping them thrive as groups, tribes, and nations. However, these same principles have also led to in-group favoritism, war, and even genocide. Does adhering to the binding moral foundations that underlie such principles unavoidably lead to the derogation of out-group members? We demonstrated that for people with a strong moral identity, the answer is “no,” because they ar...
58 CitationsSource
#1Victoria K. Lee (Duke University)H-Index: 4
#2Lasana T. Harris (Duke University)H-Index: 18
Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others’ mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision- making involving social and nonsocial stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influe...
48 CitationsSource
#1Adam Waytz (NU: Northwestern University)H-Index: 33
#2James Dungan (BC: Boston College)H-Index: 12
Last. Liane Young (BC: Boston College)H-Index: 55
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Whistleblowing – reporting another person's unethical behavior to a third party – often constitutes a conflict between competing moral concerns. Whistleblowing promotes justice and fairness but can also appear disloyal. Five studies demonstrate that a fairness–loyalty tradeoff predicts people's willingness to blow the whistle. Study 1 demonstrates that individual differences in valuing fairness over loyalty predict willingness to report unethical behavior. Studies 2a and 2b demonstrate ...
105 CitationsSource
Loyalty is a much-discussed topic among business ethicists, but this discussion seems to have issued in very few clear conclusions. This article builds on the existing literature on the subject and attempts to ground a definite conclusion on a limited topic: whether, and under what conditions, it makes sense for an employee to offer loyalty to his employer. The main ways in which loyalty to one’s employer can contribute to human flourishing are that it makes the employee more trustworthy and the...
20 CitationsSource
#1Stephen A. Spiller (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 10
#2Gavan J. Fitzsimons (Duke University)H-Index: 43
Last. Gary H. McClelland (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 28
view all 4 authors...
Abstract It is common for researchers discovering a significant interaction of a measured variable X with a manipulated variable Z to examine simple effects of Z at different levels of X. These “spotlight” tests are often misunderstood even in the simplest cases, and it appears that consumer researchers are unsure how to extend them to more complex designs. The authors explain the general principles of spotlight tests, show that they rely on familiar regression techniques, and provide a tutorial...
778 CitationsSource
#1Andrew F. Hayes (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 56
Part I: Fundamental Concepts. Introduction. A Scientist in Training. Questions of Whether, If, How, and When. Conditional Process Analysis. Correlation, Causality, and Statistical Modeling. Statistical Software. Overview of this Book. Chapter Summary. Simple Linear Regression. Correlation and Prediction. The Simple Linear Regression Equation. Statistical Inference. Assumptions for Interpretation and Statistical Inference. Chapter Summary. Multiple Linear Regression. The Multiple Linear Regressio...
11.2k Citations
#1A. Peter McGraw (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 30
#2Janet Schwartz (Tulane University)H-Index: 12
Last. Philip E. Tetlock (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 99
view all 3 authors...
Although consumers typically expect organizations to profit from marketing goods and services, they also believe that certain organizations, like those that focus on religion and health, should prioritize communal obligations. Indeed, consumers may find it morally distressing when communally focused organizations use overtly commercial marketing strategies like rebranding or value-based pricing. We demonstrate how moral distress and consumer backlash result from such taboo trade-offs and investi...
54 CitationsSource
#1Cynthia Cryder (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 14
#2Stephen SpringerH-Index: 1
Last. Carey K. MorewedgeH-Index: 27
view all 3 authors...
Early investigations of guilt cast it as an emotion that prompts broad reparative behaviors that help guilty individuals feel better about themselves or about their transgressions. The current investigation found support for a more recent representation of guilt as an emotion designed to identify and correct specific social offenses. Across five experiments, guilt influenced behavior in a targeted and strategic way. Guilt prompted participants to share resources more generously with others, but ...
33 CitationsSource
Cited By6
Newest
With the COVID-19 pandemic still raging and the vaccination program still rolling out, there continues to be an immediate need for public health officials to better understand the mechanisms behind the deep and perpetual divide over face masks in America. Using a random sample of Americans (N = 615), following a pre-registered experimental design and analysis plan, we first demonstrated that mask wearers were not innately more cooperative as individuals than non-mask wearers in the Prisoners' Di...
Source
#1Lan Anh NguyenH-Index: 2
#2Gillian VestyH-Index: 5
Last. Brendan O'ConnellH-Index: 17
view all 5 authors...
The purpose of this paper is to understand the institutionally driven changes impacting organizational accounting manipulation in Vietnam’s emerging transitional economy. Specifically, this study explore how Vietnamese accountants and regulators explain questionable accounting transactions and their rationalization for those practices, especially during the period of accounting system transition from Vietnamese accounting standards to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).,The study...
1 CitationsSource
#1Karim GinenaH-Index: 3
Source
#1Gert-Jan Lelieveld (LEI: Leiden University)H-Index: 9
#2Yoel Inbar (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 27
Last. Eric van Dijk (LEI: Leiden University)H-Index: 67
view all 3 authors...
The current article investigates decisions where people are not causing harm to others, but only benefit from the harm. Specifically, we assessed people's willingness to benefit from other's chance‐caused misfortunes. In 5 studies, examining real behavior of individuals in a television game show (Study 1) and using experimental betting tasks (Studies 2–5), we show that people are reluctant to benefit from the misfortunes of others. Although in all studies participants' decisions were objectively...
1 CitationsSource
#1Laura J. Noval (Imperial College London)H-Index: 4
#2Andrew Molinsky (IBS: International Business School, Germany)H-Index: 11
Last. Günter K. Stahl (WU: Vienna University of Economics and Business)H-Index: 37
view all 3 authors...
It is well established that people are more likely to act in a self-serving manner towards those dissimilar to themselves. Less well understood is how people actively shape perceptions of dissimilarity towards victims in order to minimize their own discomfort. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Motivated Dissimilarity Construal (MDC) – the act of purposely and proactively distancing oneself psychologically from the victim of one’s own self-serving behavior. In doing so, we challenge the ...
1 CitationsSource
#1David Dunning (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 69
#2Detlef Fetchenhauer (University of Cologne)H-Index: 27
Last. Thomas Schlösser (University of Cologne)H-Index: 16
view all 3 authors...
Emotions play complex roles in economic decision-making, particularly those involving risk. We discuss recent scholarship documenting three different entry points at which emotion can influence decision-making. First, decisions can be influenced by anticipated emotions , the feelings people forecast that they will experience once the outcomes of their decisions are revealed. Second, decisions can be swayed by immediate emotions , feelings felt at the time of decision. Immediate emotions fall int...
7 CitationsSource
#1Carey K. MorewedgeH-Index: 27
#2Simone TangH-Index: 4
Last. Richard P. LarrickH-Index: 37
view all 3 authors...
We examined whether people reduce the impact of negative outcomes through emotional hedging—betting against the occurrence of desired outcomes. We found substantial reluctance to bet against the success of preferred U.S. presidential candidates and Major League Baseball, National Football League, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball, and NCAA hockey teams. This reluctance was not attributable to optimism or a general aversion to hedging. Reluctance to hedge desired outcomes...
12 CitationsSource