Faecal microbiota transplantation: a review of FMT as an alternative treatment for Clostridium difficile infection

Published on Jan 1, 2016in Bioscience Horizons
· DOI :10.1093/BIOHORIZONS/HZW007
Chris Dowle1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Swansea University)
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Abstract
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2019
1 Author (Lucas Tremearne)
16 Citations
References68
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SummaryBackground Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy donors is considered an effective treatment against recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Aim To study the effect of FMT via colonoscopy in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection compared to the standard vancomycin regimen. Methods In an open-label, randomised clinical trial, we assigned subjects with recurrent C. difficile infection to receive: FMT, short regimen of vancomycin (125 mg four times a day for 3 days...
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Background The magnitude and scope of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States continue to evolve. Methods In 2011, we performed active population- and laboratory-based surveillance across 10 geographic areas in the United States to identify cases of C. difficile infection (stool specimens positive for C. difficile on either toxin or molecular assay in residents ≥1 year of age). Cases were classified as community-associated or health care–associated. In a sample of cases of C. diffic...
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Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. We report a case of a woman successfully treated with FMT who developed new-onset obesity after receiving stool from a healthy but overweight donor. This case may stimulate further studies on the mechanisms of the nutritional-neural-microbiota axis and reports of outcomes in patients who have used nonideal donors for FMT.
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Summary Background Antibiotic drug consumption is a major driver of antibiotic resistance. Variations in antibiotic resistance across countries are attributable, in part, to different volumes and patterns for antibiotic consumption. We aimed to assess variations in consumption to assist monitoring of the rise of resistance and development of rational-use policies and to provide a baseline for future assessment. Methods With use of sales data for retail and hospital pharmacies from the IMS Health...
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Recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a growing medical concern, with a recent dramatic increase in the number of patients globally [1–4]. In the United States, the incidence of CDI has tripled over the last 15 years [3]. Response to standard antimicrobial therapy with oral vancomycin or metronidazole is suboptimal, with CDI recurring in up to 30% of individuals treated for a first episode. After 2 or more episodes of CDI, the estimated risk for subsequent recurrence ...
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Summary Background There has been growing interest in the use of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for the treatment of gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal diseases. Aim To review systematically the reported efficacy and safety of FMT in the management of gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal disorders in adults and children. Methods The systematic review followed Cochrane and PRISMA recommendations. Available articles were identified using three electronic databases in addition to...
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The increasing public interest in fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) raises serious concerns, when the application of this treatment is still in its infancy and long-term safety is not yet established. Indeed, there is evidence that anecdotal reports of success from initial results of uncontrolled studies are encouraging patients to try this line of treatment in the absence of medical direction or supervision. It is important that medical practitioners, the media and the general public are made a...
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Understanding the principles of colonization resistance of the gut microbiome to the pathogen Clostridioides difficile will enable the design of next generation defined bacterial therapeutics. We investigate the ecological principles of community resistance to C. difficile invasion using a diverse synthetic human gut microbiome. Our results show that species richness is a key determinant of C. difficile growth across a wide range of ecological contexts. Using a dynamic computational model, we de...
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ABSTRACT Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium, is the leading single cause of nosocomial infections in the United States. A major risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is prior exposure to antibiotics, as they increase susceptibility to CDI by altering the membership of the microbial community enabling colonization. The importance of the gut microbiota in providing protection from CDI is underscored by the reported 80 to 90% success rate of...
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