Visible Light-Driven Cross-Coupling Reactions at Lower Temperatures Using a Photocatalyst of Palladium and Gold Alloy Nanoparticles

Published on Apr 30, 2014in ACS Catalysis13.084
路 DOI :10.1021/CS5000284
Qi Xiao18
Estimated H-index: 18
,
Sarina Sarina26
Estimated H-index: 26
+ 6 AuthorsHuaiyong Zhu70
Estimated H-index: 70
Sources
Abstract
Palladium (Pd)-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are among the most important methods in organic synthesis. We report the discovery of highly efficient and green photocatalytic processes by which cross-coupling reactions, including Sonogashira, Stille, Hiyama, Ullmann, and Buchwald鈥揌artwig reactions, can be driven with visible light at temperatures slightly above room temperature using alloy nanoparticles of gold and Pd on zirconium oxide, thus achieving high yields. The alloy nanoparticles absorb visible light, and their conduction electrons gain energy, which is available at the surface Pd sites. Results of the density functional theory calculations indicate that transfer of the light excited electrons from the nanoparticle surface to the reactant molecules adsorbed on the nanoparticle surface activates the reactants. When the light intensity was increased, a higher reaction rate was observed, because of the increased population of photoexcited electrons. The irradiation wavelength also has an importan...
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