Reinforcement and toughening mechanisms in polymer nanocomposites – Reinforcement effectiveness and nanoclay nanocomposites

Published on Feb 1, 2016in Materials Chemistry and Physics3.408
· DOI :10.1016/J.MATCHEMPHYS.2015.11.047
Carlos V. Opelt8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina),
Luiz A. F. Coelho17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina)
Abstract Although the effects of the incorporation of nanoparticles in polymer matrices are deeply studied in the literature, the mechanisms that promote higher properties are not well reported. In this paper, the reinforcement and toughening mechanisms that act on nanoclay/epoxy nanocomposites were studied. For this purpose, two types of nanoclays were used (sodium nanoclay and organophilic nanoclay) in three different concentrations. We propose the reinforcement effectiveness concept, which provides a way to assess the reinforcement mechanism without the use of TEM images. The fracture toughness test and the analysis of the fracture surface provided evidence that for nanoclay/epoxy nanocomposites, the dominant toughening mechanism is strongly dependent on the dispersion state, with a transition from the crack pinning to the crack deflection mechanism.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
5 Authors (Ling Chen, ..., Chaobin He)
4 Authors (Zhou Chen, ..., Xiaofeng Ren)
1 Citations
#1M. Quaresimin (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 9
#1Marino Quaresimin (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 35
Last. A. Bartolozzi (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 4
view all 6 authors...
Abstract The paper reports the results of a project aiming to obtain multifunctional binary and ternary polymer nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical and anti-microbial properties. To this end a DGEBA-based epoxy resin is loaded using montmorillonite clays and later used as matrix for glass fibre reinforced laminates. Both binary and ternary nanomodified specimens are manufactured and subjected to mechanical testing. An accurate analysis of the effect of nanomodification on the biological acti...
16 CitationsSource
#1Carlos V. Opelt (UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina)H-Index: 8
#2Daniela Becker (UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina)H-Index: 12
Last. Luiz A. F. Coelho (UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina)H-Index: 17
view all 4 authors...
Abstract The addition of nanoparticles has been reported as an option to increase the fracture toughness of thermosetting polymers without compromising the stiffness. In this paper, alumina or carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in three different concentrations, were dispersed in an epoxy resin. Mechanical properties were measured through tensile test and the results indicate increases for all nanocomposites, with a maximum for the addition of 0.5% of CNTs (17% in elastic modulus and 22% in ultimate stres...
47 CitationsSource
#1Sina Chaeichian (Concordia University)H-Index: 3
#2Paula M. Wood-Adams (Concordia University)H-Index: 22
Last. Suong V. Hoa (Concordia University)H-Index: 42
view all 3 authors...
In this work, we explain why the incorporation of organically modified nano-clay into unsaturated polyester resins, unlike epoxy, does not improve their fracture toughness despite continuing aggressive research activities based on this approach. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is explored by studying the effect of mixing method on improving the degree of exfoliation in simple nanocomposites and its final effect on fracture behaviour. Rheometry and X-ray diffraction show that the two mixing ...
6 CitationsSource
#1Muhammad Usman Alvi (QAU: Quaid-i-Azam University)H-Index: 4
#2Sonia Zulfiqar (National University of Sciences and Technology)H-Index: 26
Last. Muhammad Ilyas Sarwar (QAU: Quaid-i-Azam University)H-Index: 28
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Aromatic polyamide/organoclay nanocomposites were synthesized using the solution blending technique. Treatment of montmorillonite clay with p-phenylenediamine produced reactive organophilic clay for good compatibility with the matrix. Polyamide chains were prepared by condensing a mixture of 1,4-phenylenediamine and 4-4′-oxydianiline with isophthaloyl chloride under anhydrous conditions. These chains were end capped with carbonyl chloride using 1% extra acid chloride near the end of rea...
8 CitationsSource
#1Swetha Chandrasekaran (UHH: University of Hamburg)H-Index: 14
#2Narumichi Sato (UHH: University of Hamburg)H-Index: 3
Last. Karl Schulte (UHH: University of Hamburg)H-Index: 76
view all 6 authors...
Abstract The present study investigates the effect of addition of three different types on carbon nano-fillers on fracture toughness (KIC) and failure mechanism of epoxy based polymer nano-composites. The carbon nano-fillers were dispersed in the epoxy matrix using a three-roll mill and the three nano-fillers used for this experiment were (i) thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO); (ii) graphite nano-platelets (GNP); and (iii) multi-wall carbon nano-tubes (MWCNT). The fracture toughness was mea...
301 CitationsSource
#1Long-Cheng Tang (Hangzhou Normal University)H-Index: 34
#2Xu Wang (Hangzhou Normal University)H-Index: 4
Last. Guo Qiao Lai (Hangzhou Normal University)H-Index: 8
view all 6 authors...
Abstract In this work, we developed a strategy to balance the toughness and thermal resistance of epoxy composites by incorporating the multi-scale rubber particles. Two types of rubber i.e. the phase-separation-formed submicron liquid rubber (LR) and preformed nano-scale powered rubber (PR) particles were chosen as tougheners. It was found that the combination of these multi-scale rubber particles not only provides superior efficiency in enhancing the impact resistance of epoxy composites, but ...
58 CitationsSource
#1H. Daniel Wagner (Weizmann Institute of Science)H-Index: 49
#2Pulickel M. Ajayan (Rice University)H-Index: 188
Last. Karl SchulteH-Index: 76
view all 3 authors...
We quantify nanocomposite toughness through a reanalysis for nanotubes of the Cottrell–Kelly–Tyson (CKT) model, of the definition of critical length, and of the energy dissipation model for pull-out. The effect of the hollow cylindrical geometry of nanotubes is discussed, followed by an examination of proper ways to compare energy dissipation at the nano and micro levels.
60 CitationsSource
#1Ming Hui Wang (SYSU: Sun Yat-sen University)H-Index: 1
#2Wen Hong Ruan (SYSU: Sun Yat-sen University)H-Index: 12
Last. Ming Qiu Zhang (SYSU: Sun Yat-sen University)H-Index: 81
view all 6 authors...
With the addition of 1 wt% nanosilica, oriented polypropylene (PP) shows ultra-high tensile strength at break (≈ 320 MPa, stronger than unidirectional glass fiber (∼60 wt%)/PP composites and a low-carbon steel) through solid-state drawing strategy. When nano-SiO2 is present in the drawn PP, the aligned macromolecular chains in amorphous regions can be tied by the well distributed nanofillers to share the stress together. Above the critical content of nanoparticles or drawing ratio, the nanoparti...
16 CitationsSource
#1Mo-lin Chan (PolyU: Hong Kong Polytechnic University)H-Index: 2
#2Kin-tak Lau (PolyU: Hong Kong Polytechnic University)H-Index: 66
Last. David Hui (UNO: University of New Orleans)H-Index: 77
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Using organomodified montmorillonite (MMT) (commonly called “Nanoclay”) to reinforce polymer-based composites have raised much attention to academic and industrial sectors due to the addition of small amount of nanoclay could substantially enhance the mechanical properties of pristine polymers. However, most of the works done previously have neglected to comprehensively study the basic reinforcing mechanism of the composites, particular the interaction between nanoclay and surrounding m...
136 CitationsSource
#1A. Martone (University of Naples Federico II)H-Index: 10
#1A. Martone (University of Naples Federico II)H-Index: 1
Last. Mauro Zarrelli (Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology)H-Index: 21
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Mechanical reinforcement of polymer matrices loaded by carbon nanotubes is expected to benefit by both the high aspect ratio and the very high modulus of such nanofillers and, consequently, it depends not only by their content within the hosting system but also by the state of dispersion. This work analyses the effect on the bending modulus of dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) into an epoxy system. Results indicate that reinforcement efficiency is characterised by two limit...
109 CitationsSource
Cited By13
#1Guanghan Wu (SJTU: Shanghai Jiao Tong University)H-Index: 4
#2Dayong Li (SJTU: Shanghai Jiao Tong University)H-Index: 18
Last. Xuming Su (Ford Motor Company)H-Index: 18
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Fatigue behaviors of hybrid joint, the combination of cold-formed mechanical fastening with adhesive bonding, are yet to be understood comprehensively even though they have been widely used in industries. The lack of understanding is mainly attributed to the complicated load transfer path and possible interactions between the two types of joining techniques, namely mechanical interlocking and adhesive bonding. In the present work, fatigue tests are performed on self-piercing riveted (SP...
2 CitationsSource
#1Sarmad Ahmad QamarH-Index: 7
#2Muhammad AsgherH-Index: 41
Last. Nimrah KhalidH-Index: 4
view all 3 authors...
This chapter presents a broad overview of the current advancements in bioplastics and bioinspired nanocomposites with nanoscale reinforcements that are being applied for a broad range of applications, that is, biomedical, electronics, durable goods and packaging materials. The production of nanocomposites by completely and/or partially renewable and biodegradable materials has helped in a range of different applications. Several drawbacks of conventional materials such as hydrophilicity, low-hea...
1 CitationsSource
#1Bruna Louise Silva (UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina)H-Index: 2
#2Marcia B. Schuster (UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina)H-Index: 2
Last. Luiz A. F. Coelho (UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina)H-Index: 17
view all 5 authors...
A sustainable alternative to the destination of polyethylene (PE) residue from the prepreg package was established. This work intends to develop nanocomposites for packaging containing neat low-density polyethylene (LDPE), a compatibilizer agent (maleic anhydride grafted-LDPE, LDPE-g-MA), recycled LDPE obtained from the protective films of prepreg (rLDPE) and montmorillonite (MMT). The rLDPE, from the prepreg shield, has a primary role during the transport and storage of prepreg, which can be co...
#1C.V. Opelt (CUA: The Catholic University of America)H-Index: 1
#1Carlos V. Opelt (CUA: The Catholic University of America)H-Index: 8
Last. L.A.F. Coelho (UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina)
view all 2 authors...
Abstract The main goal of this work is to enlighten the common misinterpretation of “plastic” deformation in thermoset polymers by exploring the concept of pseudo-ductility. To do so, different nanostructured epoxy resins were manufactured by using different nanoparticles and a block copolymer, in different amounts, and then submitted to tensile tests. The results showed that rigid nanoparticles are able to increase the stiffness and strength in 16% and 22% respectively for samples with 0.5% of ...
1 CitationsSource
#1Marcia B. Schuster (UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina)H-Index: 2
#2Luiz A. F. Coelho (UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina)H-Index: 17
5 CitationsSource
#1Kang Yang (ECUST: East China University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 5
#2Bin Yang (ECUST: East China University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 12
Last. Fu-Zhen Xuan (ECUST: East China University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 35
view all 6 authors...
#1Ali Dadrasi (IAU: Islamic Azad University)H-Index: 7
#2Sasan Fooladpanjeh (IAU: Islamic Azad University)H-Index: 3
Last. Abdorreza Alavi Gharahbagh (IAU: Islamic Azad University)H-Index: 4
view all 3 authors...
This study is focused on the role of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) nanoplates on the flexural and compression properties of epoxy-based hybrid nanocomposites. In the first step, epoxy-based hybrid nanocomposites were reinforced by different HA nanoparticles and GO nanoplates up to 7 wt% and 0.5 wt%, respectively. Filler’s weight fractions that used as design parameters have been achieved by central composite design method in Minitab software. The experimental results ...
7 CitationsSource
#1Enrico Varano (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 1
#2Ming Zhou (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 1
Last. Ian Hamerton (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 33
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Rod-like sepiolite organoclays are incorporated into a simple, first-generation commercial bismaleimide (BMI) to improve the inherent brittleness of the cured polymer; montmorillonite clay is used as a baseline comparison. Both solution and solid state blending methods are evaluated to determine which offer the best method of dispersion. Increased Pangel B40 (sepiolite) loading leads to finer particle sizes and a narrower size distribution indicating that the nanoclay assists the grindi...
7 CitationsSource
#1Marcia B. Schuster (UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina)H-Index: 2
#2Carlos V. OpeltH-Index: 8
Last. Luiz A. F. Coelho (UDESC: Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina)H-Index: 17
view all 4 authors...
In this work, the relations between fracture surface roughness in mode I and the content of different carbon nanoparticles, graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) were systematically investigated. A block copolymer (BC) was also used to aid the dispersion process considering its role on fracture toughness. Both KIc and GIc were found to increase significantly with the addition of a BC along with carbon nanoparticles. Roughness measurements showed that the value of surface roughn...
7 CitationsSource