Roll-to-roll printed silver nanowires for increased stability of flexible ITO-free organic solar cell modules

Published on Jan 7, 2016in Nanoscale6.895
· DOI :10.1039/C5NR07426F
Gisele Alves dos Reis Benatto14
Estimated H-index: 14
(DTU: Technical University of Denmark),
Bérenger Roth14
Estimated H-index: 14
(DTU: Technical University of Denmark)
+ 4 AuthorsFrederik C. Krebs109
Estimated H-index: 109
(DTU: Technical University of Denmark)
We report the use of roll-to-roll printed silver nanowire networks as front electrodes for fully roll-to-roll processed flexible indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free OPV modules. We prepared devices with two types of back electrodes, a simple PEDOT:PSS back electrode and a PEDOT:PSS back electrode with a printed silver grid in order to simultaneously explore the influence of the back electrode structure on the operational stability of the modules that did not include any UV-protection. We subjected the devices to stability testing under a number of protocols recommended by the international summit on OPV stability (ISOS). We explored accelerated ISOS-D-2, ISOS-D-3, ISOS-L-2, ISOS-L-3, ISOS-O-1 and ISOS-O-2 testing protocols and compared the performance to previous reports employing the same testing protocols on devices with PEDOT:PSS instead of the silver nanowires in the front electrode. We find significantly increased operational stability across all ISOS testing protocols over the course of the study and conclude that replacement of PEDOT:PSS in the front electrode with silver nanowires increase operational stability by up to 1000%. The duration of the tests were in the range of 140–360 days. The comparison of front and back electrode stability in this study shows that the modules with silver nanowire front electrodes together with a composite back electrode comprising PEDOT:PSS and a silver grid present the best operational stability.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
85 Citations
201014.59ACS Nano
5 Authors (Liangbing Hu, ..., Yi Cui)
1,744 Citations
200811.24Nano Letters
4 Authors (Jung-Yong Lee, ..., Peter Peumans)
1,625 Citations
#1Dechan Angmo (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 27
#2Frederik C. Krebs (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 109
We report on the stability of large-area (100 cm2), low-cost, indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free modules over two years (>17 500 h) under outdoor operational conditions in Denmark and under indoor storage condition by following ISOS-O-3 and ISOS-D-2 protocols. Irrespective of the testing regimes (storage and outdoor), all modules maintain the maximum power point (MPP) above T80 (the duration over which a solar cell retains above 80 % of its initial MPP) over two years using a simple low-cost packaging ...
56 CitationsSource
#1Sanggil Nam (KNU: Kyungpook National University)H-Index: 2
#2Myungkwan SongH-Index: 30
Last. Chang Su KimH-Index: 28
view all 15 authors...
Transparent electrodes have been widely used in electronic devices such as solar cells, displays, and touch screens. Highly flexible transparent electrodes are especially desired for the development of next generation flexible electronic devices. Although indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most commonly used material for the fabrication of transparent electrodes, its brittleness and growing cost limit its utility for flexible electronic devices. Therefore, the need for new transparent conductive mate...
174 CitationsSource
#1Céline MayousseH-Index: 6
#2Caroline Celle (UGA: University of Grenoble)H-Index: 3
Last. Jean-Pierre SimonatoH-Index: 30
view all 4 authors...
Flexible transparent electrodes fabricated with random networks of silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been widely studied in recent years. This approach appears to be a promising alternative to replace ITO (indium tin oxide) in many optoelectronic applications. Many successful integrations in functional devices have already evidenced the high potential of this technology, but unfortunately only very few studies have been dedicated so far to the stability of this material. We present here a study deal...
109 CitationsSource
#1Henrik Friis Dam (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 21
#2Thomas Rieks Andersen (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 20
Last. Jens Wenzel Andreasen (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 37
view all 13 authors...
The realization of a complete tandem polymer solar cell under ambient conditions using only printing and coating methods on a flexible substrate results in a fully scalable process but also requires accurate control during layer formation to succeed. The serial process where the layers are added one after the other by wet processing leaves plenty of room for error and the process development calls for an analytical technique that enables 3D reconstruction of the layer stack with the possibility ...
42 CitationsSource
#1Michael Corazza (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 15
#2Frederik C. Krebs (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 109
Last. Suren A. Gevorgyan (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 31
view all 3 authors...
The presented work addresses the issue of lifetime prediction and intercomparison for organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices tested under different environmental conditions according to ISOS guidelines proposed recently at the International Summit on Organic Photovoltaic Stability. The studies employed P3HT:PCBM based devices produced with different architectures and methods ranging from spin coating to roll-to-roll manufacturing. The purpose of the chosen diversity was to establish the possible spr...
25 CitationsSource
#1Suren A. Gevorgyan (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 31
#2Michael Corazza (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 15
Last. Frederik C. Krebs (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 109
view all 22 authors...
The inter-comparability of ageing of organic photovoltaic (OPV) technologies in dark is addressed. Four primary factors that affect the reproducibility of the ageing rate determination and inter-comparison are discussed: production/encapsulation of the samples, current–voltage (IV) characterization, testing conditions for ageing and lifetime determination from a decay curve. Results of inter-laboratory ageing studies of roll-to-roll and spin coated samples with correspondingly flexible plastic p...
17 CitationsSource
#1Frederik C. Krebs (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 109
#2Mikkel Jørgensen (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 66
A new type of light beam-induced current 2D mapping system is developed that speeds up acquisition time from hours and days to minutes or even seconds. It is particularly relevant as a tool to characterize printed, large-scale, organic photovoltaics. Defects inherent to the multi-layer printing or degradation effects that develop later can be detected with a spatial resolution of <100 μm. It can be used as an in-line characterization element in the roll-to-roll production of organic photovolatic...
37 CitationsSource
#1Keumok Kim (Yonsei University)H-Index: 1
#2Sang-Hoon Bae (Yonsei University)H-Index: 31
Last. Jong Hyun AhnH-Index: 76
view all 9 authors...
Graphene has been employed as transparent electrodes in organic solar cells (OSCs) because of its good physical and optical properties. However, the electrical conductivity of graphene films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is still inferior to that of conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes of comparable transparency, resulting in a lower performance of OSCs. Here, we report an effective method to improve the performance and long-term stability of graphene-based OSCs using ...
71 CitationsSource
#1Jong Hyuk Yim (Ajou University)H-Index: 15
#2Sung-yoon JoeH-Index: 5
Last. Soonil LeeH-Index: 32
view all 9 authors...
We report the fabrication of efficient indium–tin–oxide-free organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM). All layers of the devices from the lowermost silver nanowire cathode to the uppermost conducting polymer anode are deposited from solution and processed at plastic-compatible temperatures <200 °C. Owing to the absence of an opaque metal electrode, the devices are semitransparent with potential applications in power-gener...
100 CitationsSource
#1Frederik C. Krebs (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 109
#2Nieves Espinosa (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 22
Last. Mikkel Jørgensen (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 66
view all 5 authors...
A solar park based on polymer solar cells is described and analyzed with respect to performance, practicality, installation speed, and energy payback time. It is found that a high voltage installation where solar cells are all printed in series enables an installation rate in Watts installed per minute that far exceed any other PV technology in existence. The energy payback time for the practical installation of polymer solar cell foil on a wooden 250 square meter platform in its present form is...
635 CitationsSource
Cited By78
#1Yu Luo (Xi'an Jiaotong University)H-Index: 7
#2Ning Tianze (Xi'an Jiaotong University)
Last. Li Wang (Xi'an Jiaotong University)H-Index: 15
view all 7 authors...
Abstract null null The rapidly growing demand in wearable electronics has led to the development of transparent flexible conductive electrodes (TFEs) that feature excellent optoelectronic properties. Herein, a facile, eco-friendly and cost-effective strategy of electrospray assisted etching (ESAE) process is presented to fabricate honeycomb-like porous Ag nanowires (NWs) networks. A water-soluble silk fibroin (SF) film served as the mask layer to pattern the Ag NWs, on which quasi-periodical dis...
#1Najwa Ibrahim (Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering Campus)
#2John Olabode Akindoyo (Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering Campus)H-Index: 9
Last. M. Mariatti (Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering Campus)H-Index: 27
view all 3 authors...
Abstract null null Silver based flexible printed electronics offer the possibility to design low-cost environmentally friendly products through versatile manufacturing procedures. In this regard, conductive silver inks are commonly printed on flexible substrates because in contrast to their macroscale analogues, the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) present different salient physical and chemical properties. However, an extensive application of silver inks is often limited by factors such as a compli...
#2Long Wen (SKKU: Sungkyunkwan University)H-Index: 9
Transparent heat films (THFs) are attracting increasing attention for their usefulness in various applications, such as vehicle windows, outdoor displays, and biosensors. In this study, the effects of induction power and radio frequency on the welding characteristics of silver nanowires (Ag NWs) and Ag NW-based THFs were investigated. The results showed that higher induction frequency and higher power increased the welding of the Ag NWs through the nano-welding at the junctions of the Ag NWs, wh...
#1Keun Yong Lim (Kyung Hee University)H-Index: 5
#2Seung Uk Kim (Kyung Hee University)
Last. Won Kook Choi (KIST: Korea Institute of Science and Technology)H-Index: 42
view all 6 authors...
#1Gabriel Bernardo (University of Porto)H-Index: 16
#2Tânia Lopes (University of Porto)H-Index: 10
Last. Adélio Mendes (University of Porto)H-Index: 64
view all 4 authors...
Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells have recently undergone a rapid increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) under AM1.5G conditions, as certified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), which have jumped from 11.5% in October 2017 to 18.2% in December 2020. However, the NREL certified PCE of large area OPV modules is still lagging far behind (11.7% in July 2020). Additionally, there has been a rapidly growing interest in the use of OPVs for dim light indoor applications, with repo...
2 CitationsSource
#1June Sik Hwang (CNU: Chungnam National University)
#2Jong-Eun Park (KAIST)H-Index: 3
Last. Minyang Yang (SUNY: State University of New York System)H-Index: 1
view all 9 authors...
As silver nanowires (Ag NWs) are usually manufactured by chemical synthesis, a patterning process is needed to use them as functional devices. Pulsed laser ablation is a promising Ag NW patterning process because it is a simple and inexpensive procedure. However, this process has a disadvantage in that target materials are wasted owing to the subtractive nature of the process involving the removal of unnecessary materials, and large quantities of raw materials are required. In this study, we rep...
3 CitationsSource
#1Thomas Sannicolo (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 6
#2Woo Hyun Chae (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 4
Last. Jeffrey C. Grossman (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 75
view all 5 authors...
Semitransparent organic solar cells (ST-OSCs) have garnered strong interest for building integrated photovoltaics (PV) and wearable electronics. Although seen as an appealing low-cost PV technology...
2 CitationsSource
#1Keqiang He (UW: University of Waterloo)H-Index: 3
#2Pankaj Kumar (UW: University of Waterloo)H-Index: 2
Last. Yuning Li (UW: University of Waterloo)H-Index: 55
view all 4 authors...
In the past few years, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) has improved rapidly with the milestone value exceeding 18%, primarily owing to the development of novel non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) as well as matching polymer donors. The molecular structure of a polymer donor fundamentally determines its molecular packing (crystal structure and morphology) and optoelectronic properties, which influence the photovoltaic processes and the ultimate PCE of the OSC device...
5 CitationsSource
#1Sungmin Park (KIST: Korea Institute of Science and Technology)H-Index: 12
#2Taehee Kim (KIST: Korea Institute of Science and Technology)H-Index: 12
Last. Hae Jung Son (KIST: Korea Institute of Science and Technology)H-Index: 27
view all 6 authors...
Organic solar cells based on bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) are attractive energy-conversion devices that can generate electricity from absorbed sunlight by dissociating excitons and collecting charge carriers. Recent breakthroughs attained by development of nonfullerene acceptors result in significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCEs) exceeding 17%. However, most of researches have focused on pursuing high efficiency of small-area (<1 cm2 ) unit cells fabricated usually with spin c...
22 CitationsSource
#1Yang Jianjun (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China)H-Index: 1
#2Wei Zeng (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China)
Last. Guofu Zhou (SCNU: South China Normal University)H-Index: 25
view all 5 authors...
Flexible transparent conductive thin films (TCFs) prepared from Silver nanowires (AgNWs) have attractive features of low cost, flexibility, and solution-processed, but the usual manufacturing methods could still be hard to be scaled up. In addition, large-scale/large-area fabrication process with industrialized potential is strongly needed. In this paper, the flexible TCFs with high stability are obtained via using screen printing method to print the AgNWs inks on a flexible and transparent subs...