Cyberostracism: Effects of being ignored over the Internet.

Published on Nov 1, 2000in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
· DOI :10.1037/0022-3514.79.5.748
Kipling D. Williams79
Estimated H-index: 79
Christopher K. T. Cheung1
Estimated H-index: 1
Wilma Choi1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract Ostracism is such a widely used and powerful tactic that the authors tested whether people would be affected by it even under remote and artificial circumstances. In Study 1, 1,486 participants from 62 countries accessed the authors' on-line experiment on the Internet. They were asked to use mental visualization while playing a virtual tossing game with two others (who were actually computer generated and controlled). Despite the minimal nature of their experience, the more participants were ostracized, the more they reported feeling bad, having less control, and losing a sense of belonging. In Study 2, ostracized participants were more likely to conform on a subsequent task. The results are discussed in terms of supporting K. D. Williams's (1997) need threat theory of ostracism.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
564 Citations
391 Citations
344 Citations
#1Roy F. BaumeisterH-Index: 173
Psychology has worked hard to explore the inner self. Modem psychology was born in Wundt's laboratory and Freud's consulting room, where the inner self was pressed to reveal some of its secrets. Freud, in particular, devoted most of his life to explor ing the hidden recesses inside the self-hidden even from the conscious mind, he said. From Freud's work right down to the latest journal article on self-schemata or self-esteem, psychologists have continued to tell us about the inner self. More rec...
448 Citations
#1Henri Tajfel (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 40
#2John C. Turner (Macquarie University)H-Index: 67
Disclosed is a semiconductor capacitor which utilizes the volume of the semiconductor substrate in which it is formed to create increased surface area and thereby to provide increased capacitance. The surface area is increased by forming selectively spaced grooves in the surface of the semiconductor substrate and utilizing the sidewalls of the grooves as surface. A thin layer of dielectric is formed over the increased surface area, and thereafter a metal layer is formed over the dielectric layer...
9,511 CitationsSource
#1Kristin L. Sommer (Baruch College)H-Index: 15
#2Kipling D. WilliamsH-Index: 79
Last. Roy F. BaumeisterH-Index: 173
view all 4 authors...
Respondents wrote 2 stories, 1 about a time they were given the silent treatment and 1 about a time they used the silent treatment on another. Content analyses indicated that targets who were unable to attribute the ostracism to a specific cause suffered greater threats to belongingness and self-esteem than those who understood the reasons for their treatment. Targets who felt that others were oblivious to their presence reported stronger threats to belongingness, self-esteem, and meaningful exi...
155 CitationsSource
#1Wendi L. Gardner (NU: Northwestern University)H-Index: 38
#2Cynthia L. PickettH-Index: 17
Last. Marilynn B. BrewerH-Index: 85
view all 3 authors...
The need to belong has been forwarded as a pervasive human motive, influencing a range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses. The current research explored the influence of belongingness needs on the selective retention of social information. Just as physical hunger results in selective memory for food-relevant stimuli, it was hypothesized that social hunger, aroused when belongingness needs were unmet, would result in selective memory for socially relevant stimuli. In two studies, t...
426 CitationsSource
#1Kipling D. Williams (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 79
#2Frank J. Bernieri (UT: University of Toledo)H-Index: 29
Last. Jon Grahe (Monmouth College)H-Index: 13
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Over the course of 5 consecutive days, each author agreed to be ostracized for a day at work by the other four coauthors. All coauthors’ offices were in close proximity and were located solely on a single floor and wing of their academic building. Each morning, the name of that day's ostracized individual was drawn, and a scarlet letter “O” was placed above that individual's office door. Ostracizers were instructed to ignore the “Os” by not looking at them, speaking to them, or respondi...
55 CitationsSource
Minimal group studies are sometimes interpreted as showing that social categorization per se inevitably produces discrimination. Self-categorization theory clarifies this point, suggesting that a process of self-categorization must occur to transform an external categorization into an internalized representation. Hogg and Abrams suggest that the underlying motive for self-categorization is the reduction of subjective uncertainty. Two minimal group experiments employing different manipulations of...
218 CitationsSource
#1Sonja L. Faulkner (UT: University of Toledo)H-Index: 2
18 Citations
#1Kipling D. Williams (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 79
#2Wendelyn J. Shore (UT: University of Toledo)H-Index: 7
Last. Jon Grahe (Monmouth College)H-Index: 13
view all 3 authors...
Asked to list specific behaviors that occur when they give or receive the `silent treatment,' undergraduates then wrote down the feeling associated with each behavior. Independent raters in Study 1, and participants in Study 2, coded the entries according to taxonomic dimensions for the behaviors and threatened needs for the feelings, finding support for Williams's (1997) Model of Ostracism. Specifically, the silent treatment is regarded to be primarily punitive and social (carried out in the pr...
116 CitationsSource
#1Robert E. Kraut (CMU: Carnegie Mellon University)H-Index: 106
#2Michael PattersonH-Index: 3
Last. William L. ScherlisH-Index: 18
view all 6 authors...
: The Internet could change the lives of average citizens as much as did the telephone in the early part of the 20th century and television in the 1950s and 1960s. Researchers and social critics are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in community life and social relationships. This research examined the social and psychological impact of the Internet on 169 people in 73 households during their first 1 to 2 years on-line. We used longitudinal data to examine the e...
3,137 CitationsSource
#1Mark R. Leary (Wake Forest University)H-Index: 107
#2Alison L. HauptH-Index: 3
Last. Jason T. ChokelH-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
Four experiments examined the functional relationship between interpersonal appraisal and subjective feelings about oneself. Participants imagined receiving one of several positive or negative reactions from another person (Experiments 1, 2, and 3 ) or actually received interpersonal evaluations (Experiment 4), then completed measures relevant to state self-esteem. All 4 studies showed that subjective feelings were a curvilinear, ogival function of others' appraisals. Although trait self-esteem ...
279 CitationsSource
Cited By1493
#1Nick Haslam (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 80
Dehumanization is traditionally considered in the context of intergroup conflict. An emerging body of research examines how it also occurs in interpersonal relationships and is associated with social exclusion and disconnection rather than conflict. This article examines how humanness implicates social relatedness, how social distance fosters perceptions of others as less human than the self, and how dehumanizing perceptions undermine close relationships. It then explores how experiences of soci...
#1Anouk Tuijnman (Radboud University Nijmegen)H-Index: 2
#2Marloes Kleinjan (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 23
Last. Isabela Granic (Radboud University Nijmegen)H-Index: 35
view all 5 authors...
Rejection consists of a range of behaviors from ignoring another to explicitly excluding someone from an encounter. Currently available experimental tasks have shown that rejection has strong emotional, behavioral, and physical effects, but the tasks have some limitations. We argue that video games can address these limitations and have developed a new experimental task (ScrollQuest) to show the potential of video games as rejection research tools. The primary goal of the present study was to ex...
#1Tianyu Ren (WHU: Wuhan University)
#2Junjun Zheng (WHU: Wuhan University)
Abstract null null Altruistic sanctions for free riders are among the most valuable approaches for promoting cooperation in human society. As a new form of punishment, expulsion allows individuals to expel defectors from their neighborhoods, which is considered an effective mechanism to promote the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by the fact that people often evaluate their surrounding environment before making decisions, we introduce a tolerance-based expulsion mechanism into the spatial pub...
#1Mitch Brown (UA: University of Arkansas)H-Index: 11
Abstract null null During the COVID-19 pandemic, individuals were advised to adhere to social distancing guidelines limiting physical interpersonal contact. Humans have a suite of adaptations to satisfy belonging needs while avoiding diseased conspecifics. Competition between motivational systems may explain adherence and resistance to social distancing guidelines and how technologically mediated interactions further shape these decisions. This study is a preregistered analysis of data in a repr...
6 CitationsSource
#1Han Li (Fudan University)
#2Robert E. Kraut (CMU: Carnegie Mellon University)H-Index: 106
Last. Haiyi Zhu (CMU: Carnegie Mellon University)H-Index: 17
view all 3 authors...
#1E. David Klonsky (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 49
#2Mikayla C. Pachkowski (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 2
Last. Alexis M. May (Wesleyan University)H-Index: 18
view all 4 authors...
There has been considerable uptake of the Three-Step Theory (3ST) of suicide since its publication in 2015. The 3ST is a concise, evidence-based, and actionable theory that explains suicide in terms of four factors: pain, hopelessness, connection, and capability for suicide. The 3ST has not only been cited in hundreds of scientific papers, but incorporated into continuing education programs, gatekeeper training, and self-help resources. In this context, it is useful to clarify the theory's conte...
#1Paolo Meneguzzo (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 8
#2Elena Tenconi (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 20
Last. Chiara Pavan (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 13
view all 8 authors...
Social cognition and temperamental and interpretative styles could play a role in the outcome of bariatric surgery. This study aims to assess preliminary evidence about how obesity surgery patients evaluate social inclusion and exclusion through a ball-tossing game called Cyberball, looking at the influence of early maladaptive schemas. Thirty-four patients with a history of obesity surgery interventions and 44 controls were recruited for this study. A psychological evaluation was performed befo...
#1Kipling D. WilliamsH-Index: 79
Last. Molly A. MaloneyH-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Abstract. Ostracism – being excluded and ignored – has received considerable attention in social psychology in the past few decades. Experimental evidence suggests that negative psychological react...
1 CitationsSource
#1Emily Hutchinson (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 2
#2Stefanie L Sequeira (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 6
Last. Cecile D. Ladouceur (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 38
view all 7 authors...
There is major concern about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent suicidal ideation (SI) and peer relationships. We investigated (1) rates of SI and (2) the extent to which peer connectedness and pre-existing neural activation to social reward predicted SI during the initial stay-at-home orders of the pandemic (April-May 2020) in a longitudinal sample of adolescent girls (N = 93; Mage = 15.06; 69% White non-Hispanic). Daily diary and fMRI methods were used to assess peer connectedne...
2 CitationsSource
#1Matthias A. Reinhard (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 4
#2Frank Padberg (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 63
Last. Fabiana Fernandes (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)
view all 13 authors...
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show interpersonal deficits, and altered emotional and oxytocin (OT) responses to social exclusion (Cyberball). In order to extend previous findings, this study applies a novel Cyberball variant. Nineteen BPD patients and 56 healthy controls (HC) played Cyberball for 2 minutes of inclusion, 5 minutes of partial exclusion by one of two co-players, and 2 minutes total exclusion by both. Plasma OT levels at baseline and after 7, 9, 15, and 40 minu...