Release of HMGB1 in Podocytes Exacerbates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Kidney Injury.

Published on Sep 27, 2021in Mediators of Inflammation4.711
· DOI :10.1155/2021/5220226
Zhao Gao (Huda: Hubei University), Li Lu (Huda: Hubei University), Xinghua Chen (WHU: Wuhan University)
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Abstract
Objective. Acute kidney injury (AKI) usually occurs during sepsis. Inflammation factors, such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), are dramatically upregulated under septic conditions. In our current work, the functions of HMGB1 in AKI were explored. Methods. An AKI model was induced by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in C57 mice. Podocytes were challenged by LPS for different durations. Subsequently, podocytes transfected with HMGB1 siRNA were exposed to LPS for 24 h. The expressions of supernatant HMGB1 and cellular active caspase-3 were examined by Western blotting analysis. To explore the effect of HMGB1 on tubular epithelial cells (TECs), HK-2 cells were exposed to HMGB1 at various concentrations for 24 h. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HK-2 cells was evaluated by Western blotting analysis. Mitochondrial division and apoptosis of HK-2 cells were assessed by MitoTracker Red and Western blotting analysis, respectively. Results. Compared with the sham control group, the expression of HMGB1 was increased in the kidney of AKI mice. Moreover, the expression of supernatant HMGB1 was increased in LPS-challenged podocytes compared with the control group. Knockdown of HMGB1 attenuated LPS-induced podocyte injury. Besides, EMT in TECs was triggered by HMGB1. Mitochondrial damage and apoptosis of HK-2 cells exposed to HMGB1 were markedly elevated compared with the control group. Conclusions. Collectively, HMGB1 release in podocytes was induced by LPS, subsequently leading to exacerbated AKI.
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a condition that has a high incidence and death rate. Unfortunately, the kidney may not recover completely after AKI, which then develops to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, it is necessary to identify potential curative targets to avoid its development to CKD. As an NAD(+) -dependent deacetylase, sirtuin 6 (Sirt6) has been linked to different types of biological processes. In the present work, our group investigated the role of Sirt6 in tubular epithelial ce...
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High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, nuclear protein present in all cell types. It is a multi-facet protein exerting functions both inside and outside of cells. Extracellular HMGB1 has been extensively studied for its prototypical alarmin functions activating innate immunity, after being actively released from cells or passively released upon cell death. TLR4 and RAGE operate as the main HMGB1 receptors. Disulfide HMGB1 activates the TLR4 complex by binding to MD-2. The bindi...
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Injury to podocytes leads to proteinuria, a hallmark of most glomerular diseases as well as being associated with the progression of kidney disease. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is associated with the pathogenesis of podocyte dysfunction and can play a role in renal injury. Furthermore, the expression of fractalkine (FKN) induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) is also one of crucial inflammation factors closely related to renal tissue damage. The aim of this study is to explore the mech...
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