Physiological and psychosocial correlates of cancer-related fatigue.
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common and distressing symptom of cancer that may persist for years following treatment completion. However, little is known about the pathophysiology of CRF. Using a comprehensive group of gold-standard physiological and psychosocial assessments, this study aimed to identify correlates of CRF in a heterogenous group of cancer survivors. Using a cross-sectional design to determine the physiological and psychosocial correlates of CRF, ninety-three cancer survivors (51 fatigued, 42 non-fatigued) completed assessments of performance fatigability (i.e. the decline in muscle strength during cycling), cardiopulmonary exercise testing, venous blood samples for whole blood cell count and inflammatory markers and body composition. Participants also completed questionnaires measuring demographic, treatment-related, and psychosocial variables. Performance fatigability, time-to-task-failure, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), body fat percentage, and lean mass index were associated with CRF severity. Performance fatigability, VO2peak, TNF-α, and age explained 35% of the variance in CRF severity. Those with clinically-relevant CRF reported more pain, more depressive symptoms, less perceived social support, and were less physically active than non-fatigued cancer survivors. The present study utilised a comprehensive group of gold-standard physiological and psychosocial assessments and the results give potential insight into the mechanisms underpinning the association between physical inactivity, physical deconditioning and CRF. Given the associations between CRF and both physiological and psychosocial measures, this study identifies targets that can be measured by rehabilitation professionals and used to guide tailored interventions to reduce fatigue.