Bioética, cooperação internacional, solidariedade e compartilhamento de benefícios: do HIV/AIDS à COVID-19

Published on Sep 16, 2021
· DOI :10.17566/CIADS.V10I3.786
Volnei Garrafa27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UnB: University of Brasília),
Monique Pyrrho4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UnB: University of Brasília)
This paper aims to analyze the right to access the benefits of scientific and technological development, using the vaccines against COVID-19 as a study case. The text is methodologically supported by articles in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (DBHR) that have a direct relationship with the proposed situation. The study begins with the presentation of the DUBDH and a brief history of its basic assumptions. Based on Articles 21 and 24, which deal respectively with Transnational Practices and International Cooperation, the reflection indicates recent significant changes in relation to the universality of access to health, replaced in the instances of the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank for the proposal of universal health coverage, with a very different meaning and scope. Based on Article 13 of the DUBDH, which deals with Solidarity and Cooperation, the text defends the concept of cooperative solidarity, based on the classic bilateral conception of solidarity as help from rich countries to others most in need, although this possibility is with frequency replaced by situations of the so-called exploratory solidarity. Finally, based on Article 15, which deals with Sharing of Benefits – central to the present study – a comparative analysis is presented between: a) historical facts related to the permission to break patents within the scope of the World Trade Organization (WTO) that enabled broad access to antiretroviral therapies to control HIV/AIDS; and b) facts that have happened since 2020 with the COVID-19 pandemic regarding the right of access to vaccines.
: This article explores the current situation regarding the importance of access to healthcare in relation to the genesis and context of bioethics developed in Brazil, a country in which healthcare is understood through the national constitution to be a universal right of its population. Since the onset of the development of Brazilian bioethics at the beginning of the 1990s, topics relating directly and indirectly to the field of public health have been a priority in the bioethics agenda. The ar...
#1Volnei GarrafaH-Index: 1
Universal health coverage has been set as a possible umbrella goal for health in the post-2015 development agenda.1 Whether it is a means to an end or an end in itself and whether it is measureable are subjects of heated debate.2 In this issue of the Bulletin, Kutzin argues that universal health coverage not only leads to better health and to financial protection for households, but that it is valuable for its own sake.3 More recently, attention has shifted to just what the goal should be: wheth...
1, might have been one more declaratory report with a set of good in-tentions like others, if it were not for the expanded interest that the proposition “universal coverage” awakened in circles of conservative health think-ing, defenders of the “market” in the provision of services, foundations acting in the Global Health arena, like the Rockefeller Foundation, and even the prestigious British medical journal
#1José Paranaguá de Santana (UnB: University of Brasília)H-Index: 3
#2Volnei Garrafa (UnB: University of Brasília)H-Index: 27
O estudo considera o cenario das relacoes internacionais na transicao para o Seculo XXI como pano de fundo para uma reflexao sobre a perspectiva bioetica da cooperacao internacional em saude. Apresenta uma analise exploratoria sobre a producao cientifica interdisciplinar da bioetica com a saude publica no contexto internacional, revelando que o enfoque de ambas, ou mesmo das articulacoes entre esses dois temas, tem parca abordagem do ponto de vista das relacoes diplomaticas. Descreve a metodolog...
#1Josefien van Olmen (Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp)H-Index: 15
#2Bruno Marchal (Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp)H-Index: 28
Last. Peter S. Hill (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 28
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Background Despite the mounting attention for health systems and health systems theories, there is a persisting lack of consensus on their conceptualisation and strengthening. This paper contributes to structuring the debate, presenting landmarks in the development of health systems thinking against the backdrop of the policy context and its dominant actors. We argue that frameworks on health systems are products of their time, emerging from specific discourses. They are purposive, not neutrally...
#1David Stuckler (Lond: University of London)H-Index: 83
#2Sanjay Basu (UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)H-Index: 93
Last. Martin McKee (Lond: University of London)H-Index: 157
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David Stuckler and colleagues examine five large private global health foundations and report on the scope of relationships between these tax-exempt foundations and for-profit corporations including major food and pharmaceutical companies.
#1Volnei Garrafa (UnB: University of Brasília)H-Index: 27
#2Jan Helge Solbakk (University of Bergen)H-Index: 14
Last. Cláudio Lorenzo (UnB: University of Brasília)H-Index: 6
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The acceleration of the market globalisation process over the last three decades has internationalised clinical research and influenced both the way in which it is funded and the development and application of research practices. In addition, in recent years international multicentre randomised clinical trials have become the model par excellence for research on new medicines. The neoliberal model of globalisation has induced a decline in state power, both with regard to establishing national re...
#1Jeffrey P. Koplan (Emory University)H-Index: 36
#2T. Christopher Bond (Emory University)H-Index: 8
Last. Judith N. Wasserheit (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 32
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This commentary makes the argument for the necessity of a common definition of global health.
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