Chlorinated paraffins – A historical consideration including remarks on their complexity

Published on Jan 1, 2022in Chemosphere7.086
· DOI :10.1016/J.CHEMOSPHERE.2021.132032
Walter Vetter53
Estimated H-index: 53
(University of Hohenheim),
Jannik Sprengel7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Hohenheim),
Kerstin Krätschmer6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Hohenheim)
Source
Abstract
Abstract null null Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high production volume chemicals currently produced and used in higher quantities than any other medium-size polyhalogenated compound (class). In addition, the composition of industrial CP mixtures is highly complex and poorly understood. In this article, we searched in the literature for the beginning of the chlorination of alkanes and how this substance class developed from niche applications to unmatched quantities in various industrial applications. Also an estimation was made on the theoretical variety of chloroparaffins and the possible complexity of industrial CP mixtures. These data may explain why little is known about CPs although the production volume throughout the industrial generation was virtually always higher than the one of PCBs and has continued to increase after the ban of the latter.
References35
Newest
#1Alwyn Fernandes (UEA: University of East Anglia)H-Index: 11
#2Walter Vetter (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 53
Last. Kerstin Krätschmer (EU: European Union)H-Index: 6
view all 9 authors...
Abstract null null The determination of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) has posed an intractable challenge in analytical chemistry for over three decades. The combination of an as yet unspecifiable number (tens - hundreds of thousands) of individual congeners in mass produced commercial CP mixtures and the steric interactions between them, contrive to defy efforts to characterise their residual occurrences in environmental compartments, food and human tissues. However, recent advances in instrumenta...
Source
#1Kerstin Krätschmer (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 6
#2R. Malisch (EU: European Union)H-Index: 6
Last. Walter Vetter (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 53
view all 0 authors...
Background: The current production and use of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) at >1 million tons/y likely exceeds the lifetime production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These persistent organic p...
Source
#1Jannik Sprengel (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 7
#2Peter A. BehnischH-Index: 17
Last. Walter Vetter (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 53
view all 5 authors...
Over the last decades, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs), and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (LCCPs) have become the most heavily produced monomeric organohalogen compound class of environmental concern. However, knowledge about their toxicology is still scarce, although SCCPs were shown to have effects on the thyroid hormone system. The lack of data in the case of MCCPs and LCCPs and the structural similarity with perfluoroalkyl substances (...
Source
#1Jannik Sprengel (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 7
#2Walter Vetter (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 53
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high-volume chemicals used worldwide in various industries as plasticizers, lubricants, and flame retardants. CPs are produced by chlorination of alkane mixtures which leads to complex products of thousands of homologs and congeners. Classic mass spectrometric analyses of CPs allow determining carbon chain lengths and degrees of chlorination while information on the substitution patterns cannot be derived. Therefore, we performed different one- and two-dimensional...
Source
#1Bo Yuan (Stockholm University)H-Index: 24
#2Daniel H. Lysak (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 4
Last. Derek C. G. MuirH-Index: 117
view all 10 authors...
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) can be mixtures of nearly a half million possible isomers. Despite extensive use of CPs, their isomer composition and effects on the environment remain poorly understood...
Source
#1Louise M. van Mourik (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 8
#2Leisa-Maree Toms (QUT: Queensland University of Technology)H-Index: 31
Last. Jochen F. Mueller (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 72
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high production volume chemicals of which some show resistance to environmental degradation, long-rang transport, bioaccumulation and toxicity potential. Information regarding their presence in humans is limited, including their human bioaccumulation potential. The present study aimed to evaluate CP levels in human serum from Australia in order to better understand their exposure and current pollution status as well as trends associated with age and time ...
Source
#2Dieter SchrenkH-Index: 54
#3Marguerita BignamiH-Index: 1
Last. Elsa NielsenH-Index: 17
view all 23 authors...
The Panel wishes to thank the hearing expert: Kerstin Kratschmer and EFSA staff member: Kelly Niermans for the support provided to this scientific output. The CONTAM Panel acknowledges all European competent institutions and other stakeholders that provided occurrence data in food and human milk and data on the toxicity of CPs, and supported the data collection for the Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database.
Source
#1Yihui Zhou (Tongji University)H-Index: 14
#2Bo Yuan (Stockholm University)H-Index: 24
Last. Åke Bergman (Örebro University)H-Index: 82
view all 15 authors...
Short-, medium-, and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) were analyzed in human milk from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Scandinavia. Individual samples were collected from Shanghai, Jiaxing, and Shaoxing (China), Stockholm (Sweden), and Bodo (Norway), between 2010 and 2016. Mean concentrations (range) of SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in samples from the YRD were 124(
Source
#1S Zellmer (BfR: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment)H-Index: 5
#2Lisa Heiserich (BfR: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment)H-Index: 1
Last. Andreas Luch (BfR: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment)H-Index: 54
view all 6 authors...
Source
#1Yihui Zhou (Tongji University)H-Index: 14
#2Cynthia A. de Wit (Stockholm University)H-Index: 52
Last. Bo Yuan (Stockholm University)H-Index: 24
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Very short-chain chlorinated paraffins (vSCCPs, C 6–9 ) occurred in 94% of wildlife samples from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China, with C n Cl m comparable to that of a local CP product, CP-52. Therefore, we determined the content of vSCCPs in CP-52 using a mathematical deconvolution technique. Then with CP-52 and several other reference standards, vSCCPs together with short-, medium-, and long-chain CPs were quantified in 21 wildlife species from an artificial wetland ecosystem and...
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Cited By1
Newest
#1Jannik Sprengel (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 7
#2Kerstin Krätschmer (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 6
Last. Walter Vetter (University of Hohenheim)H-Index: 53
view all 3 authors...
Abstract null null Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures, which consist of thousands of individual compounds with no dominant representative. Consequently, knowledge on structure and environmental relevance of individual CP congeners is poor. Similarly to the synthesis of individual CPs, the generation of less complex CP mixtures that can be thoroughly analyzed may be used to overcome some drawbacks of the highly complex technical CP mixtures. Here, we present a new synthesis approach...
Source
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