Fracture energy of columnar freshwater ice: Influence of loading type, loading rate and size

Published on Dec 1, 2021in Materialia
· DOI :10.1016/J.MTLA.2021.101188
Iman E. Gharamti2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Aalto University),
John P. Dempsey23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Clarkson University)
+ 1 AuthorsJukka Tuhkuri17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Aalto University)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract null null This work investigates the influence of loading type, loading rate, and test size on the fracture energy of columnar freshwater S2 ice. The ice sheet in the Ice tank at Aalto University was very warm (above -0.5 null null null null null ∘ null null null C) and thick ( null null null 0.34 null null null h null null null 0.41 null null null null m). A program of nineteen mode I fracture tests using deeply cracked edge-cracked rectangular plates of various sizes (size range 1:39), loading types, and loading rates were carried out. Fourteen displacement-controlled tests (DC) were loaded monotonically to fracture, and five load-controlled tests (LC) were conducted with creep/cyclic-recovery and monotonic loading to fracture. Different methods for computing the fracture energy were applied and compared. The apparent fracture energy at crack growth initiation was obtained via Rice’s J-integral expression ( null null null J null Q null null null ) modified to be applicable to the special case of a deeply cracked edge-cracked plate as well as via a viscoelastic fictitious crack analysis ( null null null G null VFCM null null null ). The work-of-fracture ( null null null W null f null null null ) was also evaluated. Both null null null null J null Q null null null null and null null null null W null f null null null null were measured from the load-displacement record at the crack mouth. null null null null G null VFCM null null null null was obtained from the back-calculated stress-separation ( null null null σ null − null δ null null null ) relation within the fracture process zone. A rather good agreement was obtained between null null null null G null VFCM null null null null and null null null null J null Q null null null , especially for the large specimens. null null null null J null Q null null null null and null null null null W null f null null null null exhibited interrelated size and rate effects. The null null null null null W null f null null / null null J null Q null null null null null values for the DC tests were affected by rate and confined to a narrow range of 1 to 3. The creep-recovery loading did not affect the null null null null J null Q null null null null values but led to an increase in the null null null null W null f null null null null and null null null null null W null f null null / null null J null Q null null null null null values for most of the LC tests.
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References23
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#1Iman E. Gharamti (Aalto University)H-Index: 2
#2John P. Dempsey (Clarkson University)H-Index: 23
Last. Jukka Tuhkuri (Aalto University)H-Index: 17
view all 4 authors...
Abstract. This work addresses the time-dependent response of 3 m×6 m floating edge-cracked rectangular plates of columnar freshwater S2 ice by conducting load control (LC) mode I fracture tests in the Aalto Ice Tank of Aalto University. The thickness of the ice plates was about 0.4 m and the temperature at the top surface about −0.3 ∘ C. The loading was applied in the direction normal to the columnar grains and consisted of creep/cyclic-recovery sequences followed by a monotonic ramp to fracture...
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#1Iman E. Gharamti (Aalto University)H-Index: 2
#2John P. Dempsey (Clarkson University)H-Index: 23
Last. Jukka Tuhkuri (Aalto University)H-Index: 17
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Large scale laboratory experiments on size and rate effects on the fracture of warm columnar freshwater ice have been conducted with floating edge-cracked rectangular plates loaded at the crack mouth. The largest test plate size had dimensions of 19.5m x 36m. The overall crack-parallel dimension covered a size range of 1 : 39 , possibly the largest for ice tested under laboratory conditions. The loading rates applied led to test durations from fewer than 2 seconds to more than 1000 seco...
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#1John P. Dempsey (Aalto University)H-Index: 23
#2D. M. Cole (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory)H-Index: 1
Last. S. WangH-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
The break-up of sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic has been studied during three field trips in the spring of 1993 at Resolute, NWT, and the fall of 2001 and 2004 on McMurdo Sound via in situ cycl...
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#1John P. Dempsey (Clarkson University)H-Index: 23
#2Y. Xie (Pacific Salmon Commission)H-Index: 1
Last. D.M. Farmer (URI: University of Rhode Island)H-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
article i nfo As part of the 1994 Sea Ice Mechanics Initiative experimental program, fracture experiments were carried out on an 80 m diameter ridged multi-year (MY) ice floe in the Beaufort Sea. An edge cracked, quasi-circular ridged floe was subjected to both cyclic and ramp loading sequences using a steel flat jack. Load, crack open- ing displacement, acoustical and seismic measurements were made during the experiments. The objective was to gain further insight into the fracture and constitut...
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#1J. G. Dash (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 37
#2Alan W. Rempel (UO: University of Oregon)H-Index: 27
Last. John S. Wettlaufer (Yale University)H-Index: 44
view all 3 authors...
The surface of ice exhibits the swath of phase-transition phenomena common to all materials and as such it acts as an ideal test bed of both theory and experiment. It is readily available, transparent, optically birefringent, and probing it in the laboratory does not require cryogenics or ultrahigh vacuum apparatus. Systematic study reveals the range of critical phenomena, equilibrium and nonequilibrium phase-transitions, and, most relevant to this review, premelting, that are traditionally stud...
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The role that plastic-frictional energy dissipation in the fracture process zone plays in the work­ of-fracture method for measuring the fracture energy of concrete or other quasibrittle materials is analyzed, and a possible improvement of this method is proposed. It is shown that by measuring the unloading compliance at a sufficient number of states on the post-peak descending load-deflection curve, it is possible to calculate the pure fracture energy, representing the energy dissipated by the ...
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#4Michio Inagaki (TUT: Toyohashi University of Technology)H-Index: 28
The contributions of nonlinear fracture processes both in the microcracking frontal process zone and in the following wake region and of grain bridging to crack-growth resistance parameters are discussed in terms of the R-curve behavior of an isotropic polycrystalline graphite. The R-curve behavior of the graphite is characterized by rapidly increasing values at the initial stage of crack extension (Δa≤1 to 2 mm) followed by a steady-state plateaulike region and then a distinct decrease when the...
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#1J. Homeny (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 1
#2Taghi Darroudi (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 3
Last. R. C. Bradt (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 28
view all 3 authors...
The J-integral experimental technique was used to study fracture initiation in burned refractory bricks and refractory casta-bles of the 50% alumina variety. In a comparison of JIc and GIc, and 2ywof it is consistently observed that GIc
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#1Sidney Mindess (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 33
#2F.V. Lawrence (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 17
Last. Clyde E. Kesler (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 5
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The J-integral, a one-parameter average measure of the elastic-plastic field near a crack tip was investigated as a fracture criterion for fiber-reinforced concrete. Cement paste, plain concrete and eight different steel and glass fiber concretes in the form of notched beams were tested in bending, and J IC , as well as the linear elastic fracture mechanics parameters K IC and G IC were evaluated. The results suggest that J IC is a promising fracture criterion for all of these, while K ...
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#1Arne HillerborgH-Index: 13
#2Mats ModéerH-Index: 2
Last. Per-Erik PeterssonH-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
A method is presented in which fracture mechanics is introduced into finite element analysis by means of a model where stresses are assumed to act across a crack as long as it is narrowly opened. This assumption may be regarded as a way of expressing the energy adsorption GC in the energy balance approach, but it is also in agreement with results of tension tests. As a demonstration the method has been applied to the bending of an unreinforced beam, which has led to an explanation of the differe...
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