The Impact of Early Life Exposure to Cannabis: The Role of the Endocannabinoid System

Published on Aug 9, 2021in International Journal of Molecular Sciences5.924
· DOI :10.3390/IJMS22168576
Annia A Martínez-Peña1
Estimated H-index: 1
(McMaster University),
Genevieve A. Perono3
Estimated H-index: 3
(McMaster University)
+ 6 AuthorsSandeep Raha29
Estimated H-index: 29
(McMaster University)
Cannabis use during pregnancy has continued to rise, particularly in developed countries, as a result of the trend towards legalization and lack of consistent, evidence-based knowledge on the matter. While there is conflicting data regarding whether cannabis use during pregnancy leads to adverse outcomes such as stillbirth, preterm birth, low birthweight, or increased admission to neonatal intensive care units, investigations into long-term effects on the offspring’s health are limited. Historically, studies have focused on the neurobehavioral effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on the offspring. The effects of cannabis on other physiological aspects of the developing fetus have received less attention. Importantly, our knowledge about cannabinoid signaling in the placenta is also limited. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is present at early stages of development and represents a potential target for exogenous cannabinoids in utero. The ECS is expressed in a broad range of tissues and influences a spectrum of cellular functions. The aim of this review is to explore the current evidence surrounding the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabinoids and the role of the ECS in the placenta and the developing fetus.
#1Kendrick Lee (UWO: University of Western Ontario)H-Index: 3
#2Steven R. Laviolette (UWO: University of Western Ontario)H-Index: 35
Last. Daniel B. Hardy (UWO: University of Western Ontario)H-Index: 25
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BACKGROUND Cannabis use in pregnancy leads to fetal growth restriction (FGR), but the long-term effects on cardiac function in the offspring are unknown, despite the fact that fetal growth deficits are associated with an increased risk of developing postnatal cardiovascular disease. We hypothesize that maternal exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) during pregnancy will impair fetal development, leading to cardiac dysfunction in the offspring. METHODS Pregnant Wistar rats were randomly se...
#1O’Llenecia S. Walker (McMaster University)H-Index: 4
#2Harmeet Gurm (McMaster University)H-Index: 2
Last. Sandeep Raha (McMaster University)H-Index: 29
view all 6 authors...
Prenatal cannabis use is a significant problem and poses important health risks for the developing fetus. The molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully elucidated but are thought to be attributed to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main bioactive constituent of cannabis. It has been reported that THC may target the mitochondria in several tissue types, including placental tissue and trophoblast cell lines, and alter their function. In the present study, in response to 48...
#1Zeinab Breijyeh (Al-Quds University)H-Index: 5
#2Buthaina Jubeh (Al-Quds University)H-Index: 4
Last. Laura Scrano (University of Basilicata)H-Index: 20
view all 5 authors...
For thousands of years, Cannabis sativa has been utilized as a medicine and for recreational and spiritual purposes. Phytocannabinoids are a family of compounds that are found in the cannabis plant, which is known for its psychotogenic and euphoric effects; the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). The pharmacological effects of cannabinoids are a result of interactions between those compounds and cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, located in many parts ...
#1Annia A Martínez-Peña (McMaster University)H-Index: 1
#2Kendrick Lee (UWO: University of Western Ontario)H-Index: 3
Last. Alison C. Holloway (McMaster University)H-Index: 48
view all 5 authors...
With the legalization of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) and increasing use during pregnancy, it is important to understand its impact on exposed offspring. Specifically, the effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the major psychoactive component of cannabis, on fetal ovarian development and long-term reproductive health are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prenatal exposure to Δ9-THC on ovarian health in adult rat offspring. At 6 months of age, Δ9-THC-e...
#1Nicole M. Wanner (UMN: University of Minnesota)H-Index: 3
#2Mathia Colwell (UMN: University of Minnesota)H-Index: 4
Last. Christopher Faulk (UMN: University of Minnesota)H-Index: 21
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Background Use of cannabidiol (CBD), the primary non-psychoactive compound found in cannabis, has recently risen dramatically, while relatively little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms of its effects. Previous work indicates that direct CBD exposure strongly impacts the brain, with anxiolytic, antidepressant, antipsychotic, and other effects being observed in animal and human studies. The epigenome, particularly DNA methylation, is responsive to environmental input and can direc...
#1Tomás Etcheverry (UBA: University of Buenos Aires)H-Index: 1
#2Paula Accialini (UBA: University of Buenos Aires)H-Index: 1
Last. M. Farina (UBA: University of Buenos Aires)H-Index: 17
view all 7 authors...
Cytotrophoblast cells fuse to form the syncytiotrophoblast, the main structure responsible for the placenta's specialized functions. This complex process denominated syncytialization is fundamental for a correct pregnancy outcome. We observed that the endocannabinoid anandamide disrupts syncytialization employing traditional techniques and flow cytometry in BeWo cell line.
#1Telma Marisa Gomes (University of Porto)H-Index: 1
#2Diana Silva (University of Porto)H-Index: 21
Last. João Pedro Silva (University of Porto)H-Index: 36
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Abstract The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a complex system comprising endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs), their synthesis and degradation enzymes, and cannabinoid receptors. These elements crucially regulate several biological processes during neurodevelopment, such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Recently, eCBs were also reported to have an epigenetic action on genes that play key functions in the neurotransmitter signaling, consequently regulating their expression. In turn, ep...
#1Roman Gabrhelík (First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague)H-Index: 9
#2Milada Mahic (FHI: Norwegian Institute of Public Health)H-Index: 14
Last. Svetlana Skurtveit (University of Oslo)H-Index: 41
view all 8 authors...
BACKGROUND With recent changes in legislation regulating recreational and medical cannabis use around the globe, increased use in pregnancy is to be expected. OBJECTIVES To investigate the association between cannabis use during pregnancy and birth outcomes. METHOD Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), a prospective pregnancy cohort, were used. Participants were recruited from all over Norway between 1999 and 2008: 9,312 women with 10,373 pregnancies who reported use of c...
Cannabis consumption is increasing worldwide either for recreational or medical purposes. Its use during gestation is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes such as, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, low birth weight and increased risk of miscarriage, though the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Cannabis sativa main psychoactive compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is highly lipophilic, and as such, readily crosses the placenta. Consequently, THC may alter normal...
Last. Gregg T. Tomy (UM: University of Manitoba)H-Index: 42
view all 12 authors...
For years, cannabis has been largely used for its mind-altering properties. However, the discovery of its medicinal and therapeutic attributes has led to increased medicinal use. With recent legali...
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The most important discoveries in pharmacology, such as certain classes of analgesics or chemotherapeutics, started from natural extracts which have been found to have effects in traditional medicine. Cannabis, traditionally used in Asia for the treatment of pain, nausea, spasms, sleep, depression, and low appetite, is still a good candidate for the development of new compounds. If initially all attention was directed to the endocannabinoid system, recent studies suggest that many of the clinica...
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