Cardiovascular profiling in the diabetic continuum: results from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study
To assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes in the general population and to investigate the associated cardiovascular burden and clinical outcome. The study sample comprised 15,010 individuals aged 35–74 years of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study. Subjects were classified into euglycaemia, prediabetes and T2DM according to clinical and metabolic (HbA1c) information. The prevalence of prediabetes was 9.5% (n = 1415) and of T2DM 8.9% (n = 1316). Prediabetes and T2DM showed a significantly increased prevalence ratio (PR) for age, obesity, active smoking, dyslipidemia, and arterial hypertension compared to euglycaemia (for all, P < 0.0001). In a robust Poisson regression analysis, prediabetes was established as an independent predictor of clinically-prevalent cardiovascular disease (PRprediabetes 1.20, 95% CI 1.07–1.35, P = 0.002) and represented as a risk factor for asymptomatic cardiovascular organ damage independent of traditional risk factors (PR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.08, P = 0.025). Prediabetes was associated with a 1.5-fold increased 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease compared to euglycaemia. In Cox regression analysis, prediabetes (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.76–2.51, P < 0.0001) and T2DM (HR 4.28, 95% CI 3.73–4.92, P < 0.0001) indicated for an increased risk of death. After adjustment for age, sex and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, only T2DM (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.63–2.20, P < 0.0001) remained independently associated with increased all-cause mortality. Besides T2DM, also prediabetes inherits a significant cardiovascular burden, which translates into poor clinical outcome and indicates the need for new concepts regarding the prevention of cardiometabolic disorders.