Scaling of heart rate with breathing frequency and body mass in cetaceans.

Published on Aug 2, 2021in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B5.68
· DOI :10.1098/RSTB.2020.0223
Source
Abstract
Plasticity in the cardiac function of a marine mammal facilitates rapid adjustments to the contrasting metabolic demands of breathing at the surface and diving during an extended apnea. By matching...
References76
Newest
#1Andreas FahlmanH-Index: 28
#2Michael J. Moore (WHOI: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)H-Index: 54
Last. Randall S. Wells (Chicago Zoological Society)H-Index: 71
view all 3 authors...
Decompression theory has been mainly based on studies on terrestrial mammals, and may not translate well to marine mammals. However, evidence that marine mammals experience gas bubbles during diving is growing, causing concern that these bubbles may cause gas emboli pathology (GEP) under unusual circumstances. Marine mammal management, and usual avoidance, of gas emboli and GEP, or the bends, became a topic of intense scientific interest after sonar-exposed, mass-stranded deep-diving whales were...
2 CitationsSource
#1Andreas FahlmanH-Index: 28
#2Bruno Cozzi (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 24
Last. Vincent M. Janik (Sea Mammal Research Unit)H-Index: 37
view all 7 authors...
Previous reports suggested the existence of direct somatic motor control over heart rate (f H) responses during diving in some marine mammals, as the result of a cognitive and/or learning process rather than being a reflexive response. This would be beneficial for O2 storage management, but would also allow ventilation-perfusion matching for selective gas exchange, where O2 and CO2 can be exchanged with minimal exchange of N2. Such a mechanism explains how air breathing marine vertebrates avoid ...
10 CitationsSource
#1Andreas FahlmanH-Index: 28
#2Alicia Borque-Espinosa (University of Valencia)H-Index: 4
Last. Julie Rocho-LevineH-Index: 8
view all 7 authors...
In the current study, we used breath-by-breath respirometry to evaluate respiratory physiology under voluntary control in a male beluga calf [Delphinapterus leucas, body mass range (M b): 151-175 kg], an adult female (estimated M b = 500-550 kg) and a juvenile male (M b = 279 kg) false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) housed in managed care. Our results suggest that the measured breathing frequency (f R) is lower, while tidal volume (V T) is significantly greater as compared with allometric p...
14 CitationsSource
#1Ashley M. Blawas (Duke University)H-Index: 4
#2Douglas P. Nowacek (Duke University)H-Index: 35
Last. Andreas FahlmanH-Index: 28
view all 5 authors...
Among the many factors that influence the cardiovascular adjustments of marine mammals is the act of respiration at the surface, which facilitates rapid gas exchange and tissue re-perfusion between dives. We measured heart rate (f H) in six, adult male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) spontaneously breathing at the surface to quantify the relationship between respiration and f H, and compared this to f H during submerged breath-holds. We found that dolphins exhibit a pronounced respirato...
4 CitationsSource
#1Andreas FahlmanH-Index: 28
#2Stefan MiedlerH-Index: 4
Last. Ashley M. Blawas (Duke University)H-Index: 4
view all 9 authors...
In the current study we used transthoracic echocardiography to measure stroke volume (SV), heart rate (fH), and cardiac output (CO) in adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), a male beluga calf (Delphinapterus leucas, body mass [Mb] range: 151-175 kg), and an adult female false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens, estimated Mb: 500-550 kg) housed in managed care. We also recorded continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) in the beluga, bottlenose dolphin, false killer whale, killer whale (Orcinu...
6 CitationsSource
#1Jeremy A. Goldbogen (Stanford University)H-Index: 32
#2David E. Cade (Stanford University)H-Index: 14
Last. Nicholas D. Pyenson (AMNH: American Museum of Natural History)H-Index: 27
view all 27 authors...
The largest animals are marine filter feeders, but the underlying mechanism of their large size remains unexplained. We measured feeding performance and prey quality to demonstrate how whale gigantism is driven by the interplay of prey abundance and harvesting mechanisms that increase prey capture rates and energy intake. The foraging efficiency of toothed whales that feed on single prey is constrained by the abundance of large prey, whereas filter-feeding baleen whales seasonally exploit vast s...
34 CitationsSource
#1Jeremy A. Goldbogen (Stanford University)H-Index: 32
#2David E. Cade (Stanford University)H-Index: 14
Last. Paul J. Ponganis (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 41
view all 11 authors...
The biology of the blue whale has long fascinated physiologists because of the animal’s extreme size. Despite high energetic demands from a large body, low mass-specific metabolic rates are likely powered by low heart rates. Diving bradycardia should slow blood oxygen depletion and enhance dive time available for foraging at depth. However, blue whales exhibit a high-cost feeding mechanism, lunge feeding, whereby large volumes of prey-laden water are intermittently engulfed and filtered during d...
19 CitationsSource
#1Andreas FahlmanH-Index: 28
#2Stefan MiedlerH-Index: 4
Last. F. CautureH-Index: 1
view all 8 authors...
The dive response is well documented for marine mammals, and includes a significant reduction in heart rate (fH) during submersion as compared while breathing at the surface. In the current study we assessed the influence of the Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) while estimating the resting fH while breathing. Using transthoracic echocardiography we measured fH, and stroke volume (SV) during voluntary surface apneas at rest up to 255 s, and during recovery from apnea in 11 adult bottlenose dolp...
11 CitationsSource
#1Fabien CautureH-Index: 1
#2Blair Sterba-Boatwright (A&M-CC: Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi)H-Index: 11
Last. Andreas FahlmanH-Index: 28
view all 6 authors...
Man-made environmental change may have significant impact on apex predators, like marine mammals. Thus, it is important to assess the physiological boundaries for survival in these species, and assess how climate change may affect foraging efficiency and the limits for survival. In the current study, we investigated whether the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) could estimate tidal volume (VT) in resting bottlenose dolphins. For this purpose, we measured respiratory flow and electrocardiogram (...
11 CitationsSource
#1Saana Isojunno (Sea Mammal Research Unit)H-Index: 11
#2Kagari Aoki (UTokyo: University of Tokyo)H-Index: 12
Last. Patrick J. O. Miller (Sea Mammal Research Unit)H-Index: 41
view all 5 authors...
Air-breathing marine predators that target sub-surface prey have to balance the energetic benefit of foraging against the time, energetic and physiological costs of diving. Here we use on-animal data loggers to assess whether such trade-offs can be revealed by the breathing rates (BR) and timing of breaths in long-finned pilot whales (Globicephela melas). We used the period immediately following foraging dives in particular, for which respiratory behavior can be expected to be optimized for gas ...
6 CitationsSource
Cited By2
Newest
#1Lucy A. Hawkes (University of Exeter)H-Index: 24
#2A. FahlmanH-Index: 1
Last. Katsufumi Sato (UTokyo: University of Tokyo)H-Index: 48
view all 3 authors...
The physiological mechanisms by which animals regulate energy expenditure, respond to stimuli and stressors, and maintain homeostasis at the tissue, organ and whole organism levels can be described...
1 CitationsSource
By describing where animals go, biologging technologies (i.e. animal attached logging of biological variables with small electronic devices) have been used to document the remarkable athletic feats of wild animals since the 1940s. The rapid development and miniaturization of physiologging (i.e. logging of physiological variables such as heart rate, blood oxygen content, lactate, breathing frequency and tidal volume on devices attached to animals) technologies in recent times (e.g. devices that w...
Source