Decision points in pancreatoduodenectomy: Insights from the contemporary experts on prevention, mitigation, and management of postoperative pancreatic fistula.
Published on Apr 20, 2021in Surgery3.356
· DOI :10.1016/J.SURG.2021.02.064
Abstract Background Despite abundant, high-level scientific evidence, there is no consensus regarding the prevention, mitigation, and management of clinically relevant pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy. The aim of the present investigation is three-fold: (1) to analyze the multiple decision-making points for pancreatico-enteric anastomotic creation and fistula mitigation and management after pancreatoduodenectomy, (2) to reveal the practice of contemporary experts, and (3) to indicate avenues for future research to reduce the burden of clinically relevant pancreatic fistula. Methods A 109-item questionnaire was sent to a panel of international pancreatic surgery experts, recognized for their clinical and scientific authority. Their practice habits and thought processes regarding clinically relevant pancreatic fistula risk assessment, anastomotic construction, application of technical adjuncts, and mitigation strategies, as well as postoperative management, was explored. Sixteen clinical vignettes were presented to reveal their certain approaches to unique situations—both common and uncommon. Results Sixty experts, with a cumulative 48,860 pancreatoduodenectomies, completed the questionnaire. Their median pancreatectomy/pancreatoduodenectomy case volume was 1,200 and 705 procedures, respectively, with a median career duration of 22 years and 200 indexed publications. Although pancreatico-jejunostomy reconstruction with transperitoneal drainage is the standard operative approach for most authorities, uncertainty emerges regarding the employment of objective risk stratification and adaptation of practice to risk. Concrete suggestions are offered to inform decision-making in intimidating circumstances. Early drain removal is frequently embraced, while a step-up approach is unanimously invoked to treat severe clinically relevant pancreatic fistula. Conclusion A comprehensive conceptual framework of 4 sequential phases of decision-making is proposed—risk assessment, anastomotic technique, mitigation strategy employment, and postoperative management. Basic science studies and outcome analyses are proposed for improvement.