Measuring the frequency chirp of extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser pulses by transient absorption spectroscopy.

Published on Jan 28, 2021in Nature Communications12.121
· DOI :10.1038/S41467-020-20846-1
Thomas Ding9
Estimated H-index: 9
(MPG: Max Planck Society),
Marc Rebholz5
Estimated H-index: 5
(MPG: Max Planck Society)
+ 21 AuthorsThomas Pfeifer38
Estimated H-index: 38
(MPG: Max Planck Society)
High-intensity ultrashort pulses at extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and x-ray photon energies, delivered by state-of-the-art free-electron lasers (FELs), are revolutionizing the field of ultrafast spectroscopy. For crossing the next frontiers of research, precise, reliable and practical photonic tools for the spectro-temporal characterization of the pulses are becoming steadily more important. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a technique for the direct measurement of the frequency chirp of extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser pulses based on fundamental nonlinear optics. It is implemented in XUV-only pump-probe transient-absorption geometry and provides in-situ information on the time-energy structure of FEL pulses. Using a rate-equation model for the time-dependent absorbance changes of an ionized neon target, we show how the frequency chirp can be directly extracted and quantified from measured data. Since the method does not rely on an additional external field, we expect a widespread implementation at FELs benefiting multiple science fields by in-situ on-target measurement and optimization of FEL-pulse properties.
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