Neural indicators of sexual objectification: an examination of the late positive potential (LPP), sexual objectification, and the body-inversion effect

Published on Jan 12, 2021in Social Science Journal
· DOI :10.1080/03623319.2020.1851013
Katherine E. Adams2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Purdue University),
Kaylyn E. Hill (Purdue University)+ 2 AuthorsAzwanina S. Azham Shah (Purdue University)
Source
Abstract
In Western cultures, sexualized women are frequently viewed as if they were objects rather than people (i.e., dehumanized). Researchers have reported an inversion effect in which images of sexualiz...
References21
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#1Philippe Bernard (ULB: Université libre de Bruxelles)H-Index: 15
#2Sarah J. Gervais (NU: University of Nebraska–Lincoln)H-Index: 20
Last. Olivier Klein (ULB: Université libre de Bruxelles)H-Index: 40
view all 5 authors...
Recent studies have shown that sexualized female bodies are objectified at a cognitive level. Research using the body-inversion recognition task, a robust indicator of configural (vs. analytic processing) within cognitive psychology, shows that for sexualized female bodies, people recognize upright and inverted bodies similarly rather than recognizing upright bodies better than inverted bodies (i.e., an inversion effect). This finding suggests that sexualized female bodies, like objects, are rec...
38 CitationsSource
#1Philip A. Gable (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 31
#2David L. Adams (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 4
Last. Greg Hajcak Proudfit (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 26
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The present experiments were designed to examine the influences of picture duration, task relevance, and affective content on neural measures of sustained engagement, as indexed by the late positive potential (LPP). Much prior work has shown that the event-related potential in and around the P3—here referred to as the early LPP—is modulated by affective content, nonaffective task relevance, and stimulus duration. However, later portions of the LPP (>1,000 ms) may represent either a return to bas...
25 CitationsSource
#1Izumi Matsuda (National Research Institute of Police Science)H-Index: 10
#2Hiroshi Nittono (Hiroshima University)H-Index: 27
Abstract Objective The interaction between affective and cognitive processes has been examined using the late positive potential (LPP) component of the event-related brain potential. The LPP is elicited not only by affective stimuli but also by nonaffective stimuli that require effortful cognitive processing. However, it is unclear whether these LPPs are equivalent. The present study decomposed the LPP into subcomponents that responded differently to affective content and cognitive demands. Meth...
32 CitationsSource
#1Nick Haslam (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 80
#2Steve Loughnan (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 23
We review early and recent psychological theories of dehumanization and survey the burgeoning empirical literature, focusing on six fundamental questions. First, we examine how people are dehumanized, exploring the range of ways in which perceptions of lesser humanness have been conceptualized and demonstrated. Second, we review who is dehumanized, examining the social targets that have been shown to be denied humanness and commonalities among them. Third, we investigate who dehumanizes, notably...
391 CitationsSource
#1Philippe Bernard (ULB: Université libre de Bruxelles)H-Index: 15
#2Sarah J. GervaisH-Index: 20
Last. Olivier Klein (ULB: Université libre de Bruxelles)H-Index: 40
view all 5 authors...
Objectification refers to treating people as objects rather than persons. When people are sexually objectified, they are reduced to their sexualized bodies or body parts, available for satisfying the desires of others. At the same time, research on object and person recognition suggests that people are perceived configurally, whereas objects are perceived analytically. For example, the inversion effect (i.e, inverted stimuli are more difficult to recognize than upright ones) occurs for person re...
122 CitationsSource
#1Laurie A. Rudman (RU: Rutgers University)H-Index: 47
#2Kris Mescher (RU: Rutgers University)H-Index: 4
Although dehumanizing women and male sexual aggression are theoretically aligned, the present research provides the first direct support for this assumption, using the Implicit Association Test to assess two forms of female dehumanization: animalization and objectification. In Study 1, men who automatically associated women more than men with primitive constructs (e.g., animals, instinct, nature) were more willing to rape and sexually harass women, and to report negative attitudes toward female ...
204 CitationsSource
#1Greg Hajcak (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 89
#2Anna Weinberg (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 33
Last. Dan Foti (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 32
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199 CitationsSource
#1Jeroen Vaes (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 25
#2Paola Paladino (University of Trento)H-Index: 6
Last. Elisa Puvia (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 7
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Focusing on the dehumanization of sexually objectified targets, study 1 tested the extent to which objectified and non-objectified male and female publicity photos were associated with human compared to animal concepts. Results confirmed the hypothesis that, among all targets, only objectified women were associated with less human concepts. This pattern of results emerged for both male and female participants but likely for different reasons. Study 2 directly looked at female and male participan...
191 CitationsSource
#1Anna Weinberg (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 33
#2Greg HajcakH-Index: 89
The current study investigated the association between neural engagement with task-irrelevant images and subsequent interference with target processing using the Emotional Interrupt paradigm [Mitchell, D., Richell, R., Leonard, A., & Blair, R. Emotion at the expense of cognition: Psychopathic individuals outperform controls on an operant response task. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,115, 559, 2006]. Consistent with previous studies, PCA-derived factors corresponding to the early posterior negati...
115 CitationsSource
#1Mina Cikara (Princeton University)H-Index: 21
#2Jennifer L. Eberhardt (Stanford University)H-Index: 20
Last. Susan T. Fiske (Princeton University)H-Index: 123
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Agency attribution is a hallmark of mind perception; thus, diminished attributions of agency may disrupt social-cognition processes typically elicited by human targets. The current studies examine the effect of perceivers' sexist attitudes on associations of agency with, and neural responses to, images of sexualized and clothed men and women. In Study 1, male (but not female) participants with higher hostile sexism scores more quickly associated sexualized women with first-person action verbs ("...
169 CitationsSource
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