Adipose Tissue Immunomodulation: A Novel Therapeutic Approach in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases.

Published on Nov 17, 2020in Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine3.915
· DOI :10.3389/FCVM.2020.602088
Ibrahim AlZaim2
Estimated H-index: 2
(AUB: American University of Beirut),
Safaa H. Hammoud4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Beirut Arab University)
+ 3 AuthorsAhmed F. El-Yazbi18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Alexandria University)
Sources
Abstract
Adipose tissue is a critical regulator of systemic metabolism and bodily homeostasis as it secretes a myriad of adipokines, including inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. As the main storage pool of lipids, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues undergo marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia in response to nutritional excess leading to hypoxia, adipokine dysregulation, and subsequent low-grade inflammation that is characterized by increased infiltration and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells. The specific localization, physiology, susceptibility to inflammation and the heterogeneity of the inflammatory cell population of each adipose depot are unique and thus dictate the possible complications of adipose tissue chronic inflammation. Several lines of evidence link visceral and particularly perivascular, pericardial, and perirenal adipose tissue inflammation to the development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In addition to the implication of the immune system in the regulation of adipose tissue function, adipose tissue immune components are pivotal in detrimental or otherwise favorable adipose tissue remodeling and thermogenesis. Adipose tissue resident and infiltrating immune cells undergo metabolic and morphological adaptation based on the systemic energy status and thus a better comprehension of the metabolic regulation of immune cells in adipose tissues is pivotal to address complications of chronic adipose tissue inflammation. In this review, we discuss the role of adipose innate and adaptive immune cells across various physiological and pathophysiological states that pertain to the development or progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with metabolic disorders. Understanding such mechanisms allows for the exploitation of the adipose tissue-immune system crosstalk, exploring how the adipose immune system might be targeted as a strategy to treat cardiovascular derangements associated with metabolic dysfunctions.
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