Regulatory focus and social reconnection following social exclusion

Published on May 4, 2021in Journal of Social Psychology
· DOI :10.1080/00224545.2020.1839004
Katherine E. Adams2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Purdue University),
James M. Tyler11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Purdue University)
Promotion- and prevention-focused people are differentially sensitive to situational gains and losses, thus we reasoned that people's state regulatory focus following social exclusion should influence whether a social reconnection opportunity is perceived as safe (i.e., will exclusion persist or abate). To create an exclusion condition, all participants believed that other ostensible participants read their personal essay and chose not to work with them (i.e., all participants were excluded). Following the exclusion, participants rated how much they wanted to work with a new partner whose personality was depicted as a safe or unsafe reconnection opportunity. We expected and found that participants who held a prevention focus were willing to work with the partner, but only when the opportunity was perceived as safe. By comparison, participants who held a promotion focus were willing to work with the partner regardless of the opportunity's safety. The relationship between social reconnection safety and regulatory focus and its effect on social reconnection efforts is discussed.
#1Dongning Ren (Purdue University)H-Index: 9
#2Eric D. Wesselmann (ISU: Illinois State University)H-Index: 23
Last. Kipling D. Williams (Purdue University)H-Index: 79
view all 3 authors...
People may choose to move toward, move against, or move away in reaction to threatening social situations. Ostracism induces both prosocial behaviors (moving toward) and antisocial behaviors (moving against). One reason that moving away may be missing from these observed responses is the absence of including such a response in experiments. In four studies, we examined whether ostracized individuals would avail themselves of a moving away response (i.e., seeking solitude), if offered, and also wh...
51 CitationsSource
#1Kristin L. Sommer (CUNY: City University of New York)H-Index: 15
#2Frank J. Bernieri (OSU: Oregon State University)H-Index: 29
Some studies have revealed evidence for proximity seeking following interpersonal rejection, whereas other studies have found evidence of relational distancing (Williams, 2007). This study examined whether both processes could occur simultaneously within face-to-face interactions. Participants were accepted or rejected by one person and then interacted with a new partner for the purposes of an impression-formation task. Conversations were recorded and transcribed. Dyads containing a previously r...
18 CitationsSource
#1Abigail A. Scholer (UW: University of Waterloo)H-Index: 21
#2Yuka Ozaki (Toyo University)H-Index: 3
Last. E. Tory Higgins (Columbia University)H-Index: 110
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The ways in which individuals think and feel about themselves play a significant role in guiding behavior across many domains in life. The current studies investigate how individuals may shift the positivity of self-evaluations in order to sustain their chronic or momentary motivational concerns. Specifically, we propose that more positive self-evaluations support eagerness that sustains promotion-focused concerns with advancement, whereas less positive self-evaluations support vigilanc...
23 CitationsSource
#1Abigail A. Scholer (UW: University of Waterloo)H-Index: 21
#2E. Tory Higgins (Columbia University)H-Index: 110
Many models of motivation suggest that goals can be arranged in a hierarchy, ranging from higher-level goals that represent desired end-states to lower-level means that operate in the service of those goals. We present a hierarchical model that distinguishes between three levels—goals, strategies, and tactics—and between approach/avoidance and regulatory focus motivations at different levels. We focus our discussion on how this hierarchical framework sheds light on the different ways that succes...
29 CitationsSource
#1Vanessa K. Bohns (UW: University of Waterloo)H-Index: 13
#2Gale M. Lucas (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 19
Last. E. Tory Higgins (Columbia University)H-Index: 110
view all 8 authors...
Two studies of romantic couples examined the circumstances under which complementary goal-pursuit strategies (specifically, the pairing of a relationship partner who prefers to pursue goals eagerly with a relationship partner who prefers to pursue goals vigilantly) lead to positive relationship outcomes. As hypothesized, couples who reported higher levels of goal congruence (Study 1) or greater self-other overlap (Study 2) benefited from complementary regulatory focus orientations. We suggest th...
40 CitationsSource
Application of the stereotactic technique to neurosurgery and introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS) were the milestones in surgical neuromodulation. Presently, the role of the DBS in the treatment of clinically and epidemiologically relevant movement disorders is widely accepted and DBS procedures are performed in many clinical centres worldwide. Here we review the current state of the art of DBS treatment for the most common movement disorders: Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and ...
52 CitationsSource
#1C. Nathan DeWall (UK: University of Kentucky)H-Index: 66
#2Stephanie B. Richman (UK: University of Kentucky)H-Index: 7
People have a fundamental need to belong that, when satisfied, is linked to a variety of indicators of well-being. The current article discusses what happens when social relationships go awry, namely through social exclusion. It seeks to resolve discrepancies in the literature by proposing that responses to social exclusion depend primarily on the prospect of social acceptance. When people feel socially excluded, they want to regain acceptance and thus may respond in ways that can help them do s...
63 CitationsSource
#1Gale M. Lucas (NU: Northwestern University)H-Index: 19
#1Gale M. Lucas (NU: Northwestern University)H-Index: 17
Last. Valerie E. Jefferis (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 7
view all 5 authors...
Lonely individuals typically fear negative evaluation and engage in overly cautious social behaviors that perpetuate their social isolation. Recent research has found analogous security-oriented (i.e., prevention-focused) responses following experiences highlighting concerns with social loss but differing growth-oriented (i.e., promotion-focused ) responses, such as attempts at social engagement, following experiences highlighting concerns with social gain. The present studies thus investigated ...
29 CitationsSource
#1Michael J. Bernstein (Miami University)H-Index: 23
#2Steven G. Young (Miami University)H-Index: 22
Last. Heather M. Claypool (Miami University)H-Index: 18
view all 5 authors...
311 CitationsSource
#1Jon K. Maner (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 61
#2C. Nathan DeWall (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 66
Last. Mark Schaller (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 67
view all 4 authors...
Evidence from 6 experiments supports the social reconnection hypothesis, which posits that the experience of social exclusion increases the motivation to forge social bonds with new sources of potential affiliation. Threat of social exclusion led participants to express greater interest in making new friends, to increase their desire to work with others, to form more positive impressions of novel social targets, and to assign greater rewards to new interaction partners. Findings also suggest pot...
1,251 CitationsSource
Cited By0