Microstructures and mechanical behavior of the bimetallic additively-manufactured structure (BAMS) of austenitic stainless steel and Inconel 625

Published on May 30, 2021in Journal of Materials Science & Technology6.155
· DOI :10.1016/J.JMST.2020.10.001
Md. R. U. Ahsan5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Tennessee Technological University),
Xuesong Fan4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UT: University of Tennessee)
+ 5 AuthorsDuck Bong Kim11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Tennessee Technological University)
Source
Abstract
Abstract Bimetallic additively manufactured structures (BAMSs) can replace traditionally-fabricated functionally-graded-components through fusion welding processes and can eliminate locally-deteriorated mechanical properties arising from post-processing. The present work fabricates a BAMS by sequentially depositing the austenitic stainless-steel and Inconel625 using a gas-metal-arc-welding (GMAW)-based wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) system. Elemental mapping shows a smooth compositional transition at the interface without any segregation. Both materials being the face-center-cubic (FCC) austenite, the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis of the interface shows the smooth and cross-interface-crystallographic growth of long-elongated grains in the direction. The hardness values were within the range of 220 to 240 HV for both materials without a large deviation at the interface. Due to the controlled thermal history, mechanical testing yielded a consistent result with the ultimate tensile strength and elongation of 600 MPa and 40%, respectively, with the failure location on the stainless-steel side. This study demonstrates that WAAM has the potential to fabricate BAMS with controlled properties.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
17 Citations
29 Citations
2020
6 Authors (Ye Changqing, ..., Ni Liang)
3 Citations
References30
Newest
#1Md. R. U. AhsanH-Index: 5
#2A. N. M. TanvirH-Index: 4
Last. Duck Bong KimH-Index: 11
view all 6 authors...
Wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) uses existing welding technology to make a part from metal deposited in an almost net shape. WAAM is flexible in that it can use multiple materials successively or simultaneously during the manufacturing of a single component.,In this work, a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) based wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) system has been developed to use two material successively and fabricate bimetallic additively manufactured structure (BAMS) of low carbon s...
19 CitationsSource
#1Alec Davis (University of Manchester)H-Index: 6
#2Cameron I. Breheny (University of Manchester)H-Index: 1
Last. Phil Prangnell (University of Manchester)H-Index: 4
view all 8 authors...
Abstract A first stage study has been performed to investigate the potential for exploiting high deposition rate WAAM to print dual-alloy microstructures. Samples were built using alternating feed wires of commercially-pure Ti and Ti–6Al–4V. A high level of dilution occurred during deposition accompanied by effective liquid-phase mixing, producing a regular distribution of solidified melt tracks of approximate bimodal composition each less extreme than that of their respective constituent feed w...
10 CitationsSource
The purpose of this study is to present how the thermal energy transmission of circular parts produced in robotized gas metal arc (GMA)-based additive manufacturing was affected by the substrate shape through finite element analysis, including distributions of thermal energy and temperature gradient in the molten pool and deposited layers.,Three geometric shapes, namely, square, rectangle and round were chosen in simulation, and validation tests were carried out by corresponding experiments.,The...
1 CitationsSource
#1A. N. M. Tanvir (Tennessee Technological University)H-Index: 4
#2Md. R. U. Ahsan (Tennessee Technological University)H-Index: 5
Last. Duck Bong Kim (Tennessee Technological University)H-Index: 11
view all 6 authors...
Wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a versatile, low-cost, energy-efficient technology used in metal additive manufacturing. This WAAM process uses arc welding to melt a wire and form a three-dimensional (3D) object using a layer-by-layer stacking mechanism. In the present study, a Ni-based superalloy wire, i.e., Inconel 625, is melted and deposited additively through a cold metal transfer (CMT)-based WAAM process. The deposited specimens were heat-treated at 980 °C (the recommended temp...
19 CitationsSource
#1Josiane Nguejio (CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
#2Fabien Szmytka (CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)H-Index: 15
Last. M. Godino Martinez (Laborelec)H-Index: 1
view all 6 authors...
Abstract The microstructure characteristics as well as the mechanical properties of an Inconel 625 alloy obtained by three processes: forging, SLM and LMD, are investigated. For the last two processes, known as “additive manufacturing”, the influence of printing parameters is considered as well as the role of possible heat treatments. First, microstructural analyses (SEM and EBSD) underline the presence of columnar dendrites with a very heterogeneous grain size for additive manufactured as-built...
28 CitationsSource
#1Uwe ReisgenH-Index: 19
#2Rahul SharmaH-Index: 7
Last. Lukas OsterH-Index: 4
view all 3 authors...
12 CitationsSource
#1J. RodriguezH-Index: 7
#2Kevin HoeferH-Index: 3
Last. Peter MayrH-Index: 18
view all 4 authors...
13 CitationsSource
#1Gianrocco Marinelli (Cranfield University)H-Index: 6
#2Filomeno Martina (Cranfield University)H-Index: 23
Last. Stewart W. Williams (Cranfield University)H-Index: 41
view all 6 authors...
ABSTRACTFunctionally graded components are usually preferred for severe and critical service conditions, thanks to the possibility of achieving different complementary material properties within the same structure. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing is an emerging technology which lends itself well to the production of sound graded structures. In this study, an integral structure of two functional gradients, namely tantalum to molybdenum, and molybdenum to tungsten, was successfully deposited. A ...
18 CitationsSource
#1Paulson Varghese (HBNI: Homi Bhabha National Institute)H-Index: 1
#2E. Vetrivendan (RRC: Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research)H-Index: 4
Last. U. Kamachi MudaliH-Index: 34
view all 6 authors...
Abstract A study of microstructure and volumetric dilution of Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) clad of Nickel based super alloy, Inconel 617M on type 316L stainless steel (SS) substrate was carried out. Overlay coatings were deposited at three different current inputs (80, 90 and 100 A) to synergetic CMT welding set while the wire feed rate and pulse frequency were pre-programmed. The ability of CMT to produce very low dilution and low heat input with the minimal heat affected zone (HAZ), when compared...
31 CitationsSource
#1J.S. Zuback (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 9
#2Todd Palmer (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 31
Last. Tarasankar Debroy (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 78
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Dissimilar metal joints between ferritic and austenitic alloys are susceptible to premature failure due to diffusive carbon loss from the ferritic alloy driven by abrupt changes in carbon chemical potential. Compositional grading of transition joints fabricated using laser-based directed energy deposition additive manufacturing offers a means for limiting carbon diffusion. Here we fabricate functionally graded transition joints between a ferritic and austenitic alloy, characterize spati...
44 CitationsSource
Cited By7
Newest
#1Xudong Liu (NPU: Northwestern Polytechnical University)H-Index: 2
Abstract null null Strain rate played an important role in the forming process of metal and alloy. In the present work, the effect of strain rate on deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of thermal-rolled Inconel 625 superalloy were systematically investigated by plane-strain compression (PSC) test at 1000 °C, and the strain rate range changed from 1 × 10−3 s−1 to 5 s−1. Obvious serrations occurred in strain rate range of 5 s−1 - 0.05 s−1 and transformed from type A to type A+B, and ...
1 CitationsSource
Source
#1Wenhao Zhang (Anhui University of Technology)H-Index: 2
#2Yunlong Lei (Anhui University of Technology)
Last. Lijie Guo (Anhui University of Technology)H-Index: 2
view all 6 authors...
Wire arc additive manufacturing based on cold metal transfer was applied to deposit 316L and Inconel 625 bimetallic structures in this work. The effect of deposition sequence on the microstructure and properties of the bimetallic structure was emphatically studied. The results showed that with the increase in the number of deposition layers, the morphology of δ-ferrite in 316L changed from lath to skeleton, and the amount of Laves phase in Inconel 625 increased. When depositing 316L first and th...
Source
Source
#1Laukik P. Raut (VRCE: Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology)
#2Ravindra V. Taiwade (VRCE: Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology)H-Index: 14
Over the past years, the demand for the wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is potentially increased, and it has become a promising alternative to subtractive manufacturing. Research reported that the wire arc additively manufactured (WAAMed) material’s mechanical properties are comparable to wrought or cast material. In comparison with other fusion sources, WAAM offers a significant cost saving and a higher deposition rate. However, there are significant challenges associated with WAAM such ...
2 CitationsSource
#2Quanyi WangH-Index: 2
Last. Qingyuan WangH-Index: 21
view all 9 authors...
Tensile deformation behavior and microstructure of nickel-base superalloy Inconel 625 are investigated under different strain rates of 5 × 10−4 s−1 and 5 × 10−5 s−1. According to the experimental results, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the alloy increase with the increase in strain rate in room temperature. Microstructure results indicate that the size of dimples is smaller in the tensile fracture surface at low strain rate than the high strain rate, and the number of dimples is...
Source
#1S. Mohan Kumar (National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli)H-Index: 4
#2A. Rajesh Kannan (National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli)H-Index: 5
Last. S.G. Channabasavanna (Maharaja Institute of Technology, Coimbatore)H-Index: 1
view all 7 authors...
The additively fabricated functionally gradient structures can be a potential replacement for conventionally manufactured structures via fusion welding techniques. A SS321/Inconel 625 functionally gradient material was processed by wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process. The WAAM-formed SS321 comprises of equiaxed and columnar structures, while the Inconel 625 consists of dendritic structures. It can be concluded that a very narrow interface was formed between the additively manufactured...
2 CitationsSource