Plastic shrinkage cracking in 3D printed concrete

Published on Nov 1, 2020in Composites Part B-engineering9.078
路 DOI :10.1016/J.COMPOSITESB.2020.108313
Gerrit M. Moelich4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Stellenbosch University),
Jacques Kruger9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Stellenbosch University),
Riaan Combrinck12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Stellenbosch University)
Source
Abstract
Abstract In concrete, early age pore water evaporation results in volumetric shrinkage that, when restrained, can cause plastic shrinkage cracking (PSC). 3D printed concrete (3DPC) is vulnerable to PSC due to a lack of formwork, minimal bleeding water, low aggregate to binder ratio and high quantities of fines in the mixture. A novel experimental method was developed to determine the PSC risk, evaluating the efficacy of PSC prevention measures and understanding the behaviour of PSC in early age 3DPC. This study evaluated the free shrinkage of 3DPC specimens as well as identified and systematically introduced sources of restraint to induce PSC. The free shrinkage results showed a rate of strain gain and peak strain significantly higher than commonly found in ordinary concrete. Severe cracking was observed when the shrinkage was restrained under a moderate evaporation rate. Cracks formed within the first 2鈥痟 after printing, earlier than in ordinary concrete. The proposed method was employed to study the fundamental behaviour of crack formation and propagation in 3DPC. The unique filament interlayer plane has a notable effect on the transfer of shrinkage deformation in the specimen. Differential horizontal deformation in consecutive layers and consequential interlayer slip was observed when the shrinkage was restrained. It is reasonable to conclude that interlayer slip caused by early age shrinkage has the potential to reduce the long-term interlayer bond strength and the durability of 3DPC.
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