A study of microstructure and cracking behavior of H13 tool steel produced by laser powder bed fusion using single-tracks, multi-track pads, and 3D cubes

Published on Dec 1, 2020in Journal of Materials Processing Technology5.551
· DOI :10.1016/J.JMATPROTEC.2020.116802
Yining He3
Estimated H-index: 3
(CMU: Carnegie Mellon University),
Ming Zhong1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CMU: Carnegie Mellon University)
+ 1 AuthorsBryan A. Webler11
Estimated H-index: 11
(CMU: Carnegie Mellon University)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract This study investigated laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing of H13 tool steel to identify how laser power (P) and scan speed (V) influenced melt pool geometry, microstructure, and susceptibility to cracking. Sequential studies from tracks, pads to 3D cubes were performed. Tracks and pads were made by laser scan on H13 build plates with and without powder addition. P-V windows were identified where keyholing, balling and under-melt occurred. The only change in melt pool geometry between the powder and no-power experiments was a slight shift of P-V window for the onset of balling. An inhomogeneous microstructure was observed for some tracks and pads, with a cellular-network microstructure and isolated-whisker microstructure at different regions in the same melt pool. Cracks were found in the regions with the isolated-whisker microstructure. Based on these observations, P-V windows of higher and lower cracking tendency were predicted. 3D-cubes built by P-V sets in different windows showed crack densities in line with the predictions. The results of this study provide guidance for LPBF process control to obtain uniform microstructure and minimize cracking of H13 steel parts.
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Due to a good combination of high hardness, wear resistance, toughness, resistance to high operating temperatures, and fairly low material cost, AISI H13 tool steel is commonly used in the manufacture of injection molds. Additive manufacturing (AM) such as selective laser melting (SLM), due to the layer-wise nature of the process, offers substantial geometric design freedom in comparison with conventional subtractive manufacturing methods, thereby enabling a construction of complex near-net shap...
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#2Zhou YinghaoH-Index: 12
The determination of microstructural details for powder materials is vital for facilitating their selective laser melting (SLM) process. Four widely used steels (316L, H13, P20 and 18Ni300) have been investigated to detail their powders’ microstructures as well as laser absorptivity to understand their SLM processing from raw material perspective. Phase components of these four steel powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) and scann...
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In this research, samples of the H13 steel, a commonly used hot work tool steel in the die/mould manufacturing industry, were additively manufactured using selective laser melting (SLM). Their as-built microstructures were characterised in detail using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and compared with that of the conventionally manufactured H13 (as-supplied). SLM resulted in the formation of martensite and also its partial decomposition into fine α-Fe and Fe3C precipitates along with reta...
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